Psychology Chapter 15

the medical model
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts are made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

a biopsychosocial approach
People around the world may experience the same genetically based disorder quite differently depending on their own personal expectations and the definitions of abnormality common to their unique culture. This best illustrates the need for

DSM-IV
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the

generalized anxiety disorder
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a

agoraphobia
The avoidance of situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes is most characteristic of

post-traumatic stress disorder
Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of

learning
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.

dissociative disorder
A sudden loss of memory is one of the symptoms of a(n)

a mood disorder
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from

a manic episode
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with

delusions
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from

Catatonia
periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement

hallucinations
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce

viral infections
The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder

antisocial personality disorder
Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions

ADHD
Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of

biasing power of diagnostic labels
After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as “a passive type” and “frightened of his own impulses.” This study best illustrated the

panic disorder
Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of

phobia
Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a

an obsessive-compulsive disorder
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of

mania
Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of

psychoanalytic perspective
The suggestion that dissociative identity disorders are created as defenses against the anxiety caused by one’s own unacceptable impulses best illustrates the

a persistently sad mood and low energy level
A dysthymic disorder is most likely to be characterized by

learned helplessness
The social-cognitive perspective has linked the experience of depression to

social-cognitive perspective
Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a

specific and temporary
An effective way to break the vicious cycle of depression is to explain stressful events in terms that are

schizophrenia
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from

hallucinations
Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil that he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing

social withdrawal
Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia

women tend to think, while men tend to act
Gender differences in the prevalence of depression may be partly due to the fact that when stressful experiences occur

vary from cultures and time
The criteria for classifying behavior as psychologically disordered

arise from the interaction of nature and nurture
Most mental health workers today take the view that disordered behaviors

Pinel
The French reformer who insisted that madness was not demon possession and who called for humane treatment of patients was

depression
Which of the following is the most pervasive of the psychological disorders

Which of the following is not true concerning depression?
Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event

It occurs more frequently in lightly populated areas.
Which of the following is not true regarding schizophrenia?

depression; anorexia nervosa
Evidence of environmental effects on psychological disorders is seen in the fact that certain disorders, such as ______, are universal, whereas others, such as ______, are culture-bound

alleviate schizophrenia symptoms
The effect of drugs that block receptors for dopamine is to

is relatively high
The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV

having matured physically at a very early age
The early warning signs of schizophrenia, based on studies of high-risk children, include all but which of the following?

legal definitions
The term insanity refers to

anxiety disorders
Phobias and obsessive-compulsive behaviors are classified as

mood disorder
According to the social-cognitive perspective, a person who experiences unexpected aversive events may develop helplessness and manifest a

hearing
Most of the hallucinations of schizophrenia patients involve the sense of

less fear and less autonomic arousal
When expecting to be electrically shocked, people with an antisocial disorder, as compared to normal people, show

hallucination; delusion
Hearing voices would probably be a(n) ______; believing that you are Napoleon would be a(n) ______

increased levels of norepinephrine
In treating depression, a psychiatrist would probably prescribe a drug that would

process; unlikely
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, called ______ schizophrenia, recovery is ______

Definitions of abnormal behavior are culture-dependent
Which of the following is true concerning abnormal behavior

biopsychosocial
The fact that disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity, whereas other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound provides evidence for the ______ model of psychological disorders

Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders
Which of the following statements concerning the labeling of disordered behaviors is not true

role-playing
Nicholas Spanos considers dissociative identity disorder to be

depression
According to psychoanalytic theory, memory of losses, especially in combination with internalized anger, is likely to result in

a genetic predisposition
According to the following, which is generally accepted as a possible cause of schizophrenia

dissociative identity disorder
As a child, Monica was criticized severely by her mother for not living up to her expectations. This criticism was always followed by a beating with a whip. As an adult, Monica is generally introverted and extremely shy. Sometimes, however, she acts more like a young child, throwing tantrums if she doesn’t get her way. At other times, she is a flirting, happy-go-lucky young lady. Most likely, Monica is suffering from

learning
Before he can study, Rashid must arrange his books, pencils, paper, and other items on his desk so that they are “just so.” The campus counselor suggests that Rashid’s compulsive behavior may help alleviate his anxiety about failing in school, which reinforces the compulsive actions. This explanation of obsessive-compulsive behavior is most consistent with which perspective?

heights
To which of the following is a person most likely to acquire a phobia?

the medical model At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts are made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial …

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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is also noticeable in other members of her family. preventing her from functioning effectively. not …

Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a(n): Generalized Anxiety Disorder The avoidance of situations in which help may not be available when panic …

Dissociative disorder Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Hypochondriasis Interpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

The DSM-IV-TR contains all of the following EXCEPT a description of how to perform such procedures as trepanning to treat the disorders. During the Middle Ages, mental disorders were thought to be caused by spirit possession. WE WILL WRITE A …

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