Psychology Chapter 12

In the ______ model, abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences.
biopsychosocial

A person who finds it difficult to function on a day-to-day basis may be displaying ______ behaviors.
maladaptive

During the Middle Ages, mental disorders were thought to be caused by:
spirit possession.

The term that refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with the disorder was nurtured in order to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder is:
cultural relativity

The DSM-5 describes about _____ different psychological disorders, each noted for its symptoms, typical path, and a checklist of criteria that must be met in order for a diagnosis of that condition to be made.
250

________ is a condition in which a person reduces eating to a point that results in significantly lower-than-normal body weight.
Anorexia nervosa

Organic factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors can all be causes of:
sexual dysfunction.

The causes of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder are not yet fully understood, but the greatest risk factor appears to be related to:
age and gender.

_______ is when a person believes that his or her behavior must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
All-or-nothing thinking

An irrational and often persistent fear of an object, situation, or activity is called:
a phobia.

Severe sadness that comes on suddenly, and is either (a) too severe for the circumstances or (b) exists without any external cause, is called:
major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder that is 1.5 to 3 times more likely to occur in ______ as it is in _____.
women; men

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia appear to reflect a decrease of normal functions such as:
poor attention or a lack of affect.

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia decrease the activity of _______ in areas of the brain responsible for some of the positive symptoms.
dopamine

The term ____ means that the person is unable to distinguish between reality and fantasy and experiences disturbances in thinking, emotions, and behavior.
schizophrenia

There are ___ basic categories of recognized types of personality disorders in the DSM-5.
three

The emotional unresponsiveness of people who suffer from _______ personality disorder has been linked to lower than normal levels of stress hormones.
antisocial

Maria is a college student and is generally anxious. She cannot identify any one thing in particular that is bothersome, but feels anxious most of the time. Maria is exhibiting:
free-floating anxiety.

Matthew, a psychology major, is worried that he and his family have the mental disorders he is reading about. Matthew is experiencing:
psychology student’s syndrome

_______ risks are higher in bipolar disorder as compared to unipolar depression.
Genetic

Researchers investigating ways to help people reduce their experience of test anxiety have found that ________ (imagining a person who is successful at a related task) lowered the relationship between test anxiety and test performance.
competence priming

Jessica checks the locks on her house doors every hour on the hour from 10 pm to 6 am every single night. While Jessica recognizes that her behavior is interfering with her ability to sleep at night and function during the day, she can’t seem to stop. Jessica appears to have ______.
obsessive-compulsive disorder

Bill tends to have relationships with others that are very intense and often unstable. He is moody, manipulative, and sometimes engages in suicidal behaviors to get attention from others. Bill would best be diagnosed with ________ disorder.
borderline personality

A ________ occurs when a person travels away from home and then cannot remember the trip or personal information such as identity.
dissociative fugue

The ______ theory explains dissociative disorders as the result of “thought avoidance” to avoid or decrease the pain of guilt, shame, or anxiety produced from disturbing thoughts and experiences.
cognitive/behavioral

____ theorists talk about how specific behavior can be learned over time through the processes of reinforcement, shaping, and modeling.
Cognitive-behavioral

Behavioral theorists link depression to
learned helplessness.

The ______ model of abnormality explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, and brain damage.The ______ model of abnormality explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, and brain damage.
biological

The term dementia praecox once referred to the disorder now known as:
schizophrenia.

The _____ assumes that a biological sensitivity to a certain disorder will result in the development of the disorder under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress.
stress-vulnerability model

_______ is when a person believes that his or her behavior must be perfect or the result will be a total failure.
All-or-nothing thinking

An individual who uses _____ takes one negative event and interprets it as a never-ending pattern of defeat.
overgeneralization

______, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren’t really there, are not uncommon in someone diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Hallucinations

Scott experiences vast mood swings ranging from depression on one end of the spectrum to episodes when he feels euphoric and has so much energy that he can’t sleep. Scott is suffering from:
bipolar disorder.

A woman who was assaulted cannot recall the experience itself and also cannot recall anything that happened in the two weeks following the event. She remembers everything leading up to the event. The woman is suffering from:
dissociative amnesia

Research has found that lower levels of dopamine produced by the ________ are associated with attention deficits and poor organization of thought, two negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
prefrontal cortex

The most dominant symptom of a(n) _______ disorder is excessive or unrealistic worrying and fearfulness.
anxiety

The ______ model of abnormality explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, and brain damage
biological

Cognitive psychologists believe abnormal behavior is the result of:
illogical thinking problems.

Criteria such as behavior going against social norms, behavior that causes subjective discomfort, maladaptive behavior that causes an inability to function, and behavior causing a person to be dangerous to self or others are all indications of:
abnormal behavior.

______ risks are higher in bipolar disorder as compared to unipolar depression.
Genetic

Todd has been struggling with _____, characterized by the intruding thought that his hands are covered in germs. He cannot pursue daily tasks unless he completes a ritualistic routine to wash his hands until he feels clean. These rituals have taken up so much of his time that he rarely manages to finish a task or complete his work at his job.
obsessive-compulsive disorder

A child who witnessed the death of his mother experiences symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems as late as three years after the event. The child is suffering from:
posttraumatic stress disorder

Anxiety Disorders
Panic Disorder
OCD
Generalized Anxiety
Acute Stress Disorder
PTSD

Panic Disorder
Frequent panic attacks, enough that you avoid places and situations in fear of having a panic attack

Panic Disorder with Agrophobia
Fear of panic attack in unfamiliar public places

Panic Attack
sudden fear
shortness of breath
racing heart beat

OCD
Obsessive- intruding recurring thoughts, images and urges
Compulsion- Compulsive, Ritualistic, Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that reduce anxiety

Superstitions become real

PTSD/Accute Stress Disorder
exposure to a major stressor with numerous symptoms including moments when the event is relived in dreams or flashbacks

PTSD- Symptoms last longer than one month
Accute Stress Disorder- Symptoms last less than a month

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Worry and physical stress lasting at least six months
Worry about everything

muscle tension in neck, very irritable

Mood Disorder
Severe disturbances in emotion

People with mood disorders experience emotions that are extreme

Major Depression
Bipolar

Affect
emotional reaction

Major Depression
Severe depression, sudden, no apparent external cause

most common mood disorders

2x as common in women
EX weight

Bipolar
Severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes

Eating disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bullimia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa
eating is reduced, extremely underweight

Bullimia Nervosa
Cycle of binging then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain

Purging, vomiting, fasting or extreme excercise

Schizophrenia
Single personality
Psychotic

Hallucinations- visual/auditory
Delusions-thoughts/ paranoia

DID
dissociative with mulitple personalities

formerly known as multiple personality disorder

Personality Disorders
Antisocial
Borderline

Antisocial
not good at being social

tend to be manipulative people who lack empathy

Borderline
Unstable mood, unstable emotions

always on the line of not being ok

Maladaptive
person finds it hard to adapt to the demands of day to day life

Situational Context

Psychological Disorder
Which is defined as any pattern of behavior or psycholoical functioning that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others or harms their ability to functioning in daily life

Abnormalities

Cognitive Psychologists
study the way people think

Sociocultural Perspective
abnormality, abnormal thinking or behavior is seen as the product of behavioral shaping within the context of family influences

Cultural Relativity
term that refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with a disorder was nurtured to be able to correctly diagnos and treat

Cultural Syndromes
cultural idioms of distress and cultural explanations

DSM-5
International Classification of Diseases

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders 5th edition

Anxiety Disorders
includes disorders in which the most dominant symptoms in excessive or unrealistic anxiety

Free Floating Anxiety
anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic and specific, known factor, and it is often a symptom of an anxiety disorder

Social Anxiety Disorder
Social Phobia

fear with interacting with others or being in a social situation and is one of the most common factors

Phobia
irrational persistent fear of something

Specific Phobia
is an irrational fear of some object or specific situations, such as fear of dogs, spiders, snakes

Claustrophobia
Fear of small enclosed spaces

Arachnophobia
fear of spiders

nyctophobia
fear of darkness

trypanophobia
fear of injections or shots

odontophobia
fear of dental work

hematophobia
fear of blood

acrophobia
fearof heights

agrophobia
fear of market places

All or nothing thinking
person believes that his or her performance must be perfect and any other result is failure

Overgeneralization
jumping to conclusions with out facts to support that conclusion

minimization
give little emphasis to one’s success or positive events and traits

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