Psychology Chapter 1 practice questions

Researchers use___ for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data
scientific method

an institutional review board reviews:
a study’s safety and consideration for the research participants

Correlation will tell researchers:
if there is a relationship between variables

Which of the following is a guideline for doing research with people?
participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation

Experimenters control the effects of extraneous or confounding variables upon members of experimental and control groups by using:
random assignment

If a correlation coefficient is positive
the two variables increase or decrease in the same direction

Researchers who allow their expectations about what they see affect the results of their observation studies are suffering from
observer bias

John Watson believed that phobias
cannot be eliminated entirely

What did John Watson believe about behavior?
that it is learned

Freud believed that personality was formed
in the first 6 years of life

The psychological perspective that is associated with William James is
Functionalism

Freud believed that we___ all of our threatening urges and desires
repress

Which of the following illustrates psychology’s goal of control?
Using rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes

A___has a medical degree and is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
psychiatrist

Dr. Jonas wanted to determine what would happen if rats were given food every time they completed a maze. He believed that they would learn to complete the maze faster. This belief is called
a prediction

Upon receiving feedback on a research paper she wrote, Kara’s professor noted that in some areas of her paper Kara failed to make judgement that were logical and well thought out. The professor was making reference to Kara’s inability to effectively use:
Critical thinking

Anna is 45 years old and is suffering from hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a___perspective, Anna’s symptoms might be attributed to menopause
biopsychological

Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an attempt to be extra well behaved for her. Sasha’s research will be impacted by
The observer effect

Mrs. Lewis participated in a study in which she was given no treatment for her condition. Mrs. Lewis was in the____ group.
Control

When conducting research, scientists and psychologists gather____ evidence to ____
Empirical, know

A drug company is determining the effects of a treatment for depression. Neither the researcher nor the participants know who is getting the treatment and who is given a sugar pill. This type of study is
double-blind

Dr. Edwards wants to show a casual relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer. Dr Edwards should:
conduct an experiment using animal participants.

Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill, but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as:
the placebo effect

When Mary took the survey in the mall, she noticed that the interviewer was wearing an Obama button. She answered the questions more favorably toward Obama than she might otherwise have, probably because:
of courtesy bias

At the end of her experiment, Dr. Roe informed all of the participants that not everyone received the pill that was being tested for its effect on hunger. some people, in fact, received a sugar pill that should have had no effect. Relaying this information to the study’s participants after completing the experiment is known as___
debriefing

In the definition of psychology, mental processes means:
Internal, covert behavior

Dr. Baker designs an experiment for studying lab rats’ reaction to energy drinks in relation to problem solving. Dr. Baker is most interested in the goal of:
explanation

Results in the study by Cheryan suggest that changes must occur to the perception of the computer science field. This illustrates the goal of:
prediction

James is conducting research that he hopes will give psychotherapists more info about how to prevent their clients from attempting suicide. In the long run he hopes that a significant reduction in suicidal behavior among those with mental illnesses will be the result. The primary goal of James’ research is:
control

The early perspective of ____ was developed by a neurologist, and emphasized the importance of both the unconscious and early childhood experiences.
psychoanalysis

Which early perspective tried to return to a focus on scientific inquiry by ignoring the study of consciousness?
behaviorism

which of the following perspectives focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics?
evolutionary

which perspective offers the best explanation for schizophrenia?
biopsychological

Which perspective would a researcher be taking if she were studying a client’s early childhood experiences and his resulting development of self?
psychodynamic

Which of the following professionals in psychology has no medical training but has a doctoral degree?
psychologist

In the scientific method, the final step is:
reporting your results

What is an example of observer bias?
you develop an opinion of what you expect to see in an experiment

the main advantage of a survey is that
a large amount of data can be gathered

which of the following would indicate the weakest relationship and thus be close to complete randomness? +1.04, -0.89, +0.01, -0.98
+0.01

In an experiment to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on completion of a puzzle, one group is allowed to sleep eight hours while another group is made to stay awake. In this experiment, the control group is:
the group that gets to sleep.

In a ____ study, the participants do not know if they are part of the control group or the experiment group. only the experiment knows who is in each group.
single-blind

What is the 1st guideline for doing research with people?
the rights and well being of the participants must come first.

In the definition of psychology, the term behavior means
overt actions and reactions

A psychologist is interested in finding out why married couples seemingly begin to look like eachother after several years of marriage. this psychologist is most interested in the goal of
explanation

sigmund freud’s psychoanalysis focused on
early childhood experiences

which perspective is often referred to as the third force in psychology and focuses on a person’s freedom of choice in determining their behavior?
humanism

Which perspective best explains the bystander effect whereby individuals will be less likely to help someone in need because of the presence of others close by?
sociocultural

which step of the scientific method is derived from the goal of description?
perceiving a question

a researcher finds that as her subjects increased the number of hours they spent exercising, the overall weight of her subjects decreased. This would be an example of a _____ correlation.
negative

double blind studies control for___
the placebo effect and the experimenter effect

Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of A) animal intelligence. B) personality development. C) learning and memory. D) reactions to sensory stimulation. D Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people’s inner sensations …

In _____, a person exhibits persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. a psychological disorder David Rosenhan and colleagues conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic labels. They went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of “hearing voices” …

associative learning Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates conditioned stimulus Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly …

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Watson believe that behavior is learned Freud belived personality was formed in first 6 years of life WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample John Watson believed that …

The thinking and attitudes of many who survived the Depression of the 1930s changed them for the rest of their lives. This would be an example of a a.) cohort effect b.) cultural group c.) longitudinal group d.) cross-sequential group …

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