Psychology Ch. 14

Psychopathology
study of abnormal behavior

Situational Context
social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior

Biological Model
psychological disorders have biological or medical causes

Psychodynamic Theorists
abnormal behavior stems from repressed conflicts and urges that are fighting to become conscious

behaviorist
abnormal behavior is learned

cognitive
abnormal behavior comes from irrational beliefs and illogical patterns of thought

sociological perspective
abnormal behavior is the product of family, social, and cultural influences

bio-psychological model
incorporates biology, psychology, and culture into a single explanation of abnormal behavior

DSM-5 (diagnostic and statistical manual)
manual of psychological disorders and their symptoms

ICD (International classification of diseases)
international resource published by the World Health Organization (WHO)

Pros of Labeling disorders
Provide a common language to professionals, and establishes distinct categories of diagnosis for treatment and understanding

Cons of Labeling Disorders
overly prejudicial, psychology student’s syndrome

Agoraphobia
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible

generalized anxiety disorder
excessive anxieties and worries occur more days than not for at least 6 months

ASD (Acute stress disorder)
a disorder resulting from exposure to a major, traumatic stressor

Biological explanations of anxiety disorders
chemical imbalances in the nervous system

Affect
emotion or mood

mood disorders
seasonal affective disorders (SAD)- caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months

mood disorders cont’d
manic episode- a period of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability

Causes of Mood Disorders
1.Behavioral theories link depression to learned helplessness
2. Cognitive theories see depression as the result of distorted, illogical thinking
3. biological theories look at the function of serotonin, neropinephrine, and dopamine systems in the brain

dissociative disorders
1. dissociative amnesia-loss of memory or personal info, either partial or complete
2.dissociative fugue-traveling away from familiar surroundings with amnesia for the trip and possible amnesia for personal information
3. depersonalization-person feels detached from their bodies and their surroundings

Psychodynamic explanations
see dissociation as a defense mechanism against anxiety

cognitive and behavioral explanations
see dissociation as avoidance learning

Biological explanations
point to lower than normal activity levels in the areas responsible for body awareness in people with dissociative disorders

psychotic
the break away from an ability to perceive what is real and what is fantasy

delusions
false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness

Schizophrenia
Hallucinations, Flat affect, catatonia

Hallucinations
false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that don’t really exist

flat affect
a lack of emotional responsiveness

catatonia
either wildly excessive movement or total lack thereof

Positive symptoms
excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior

negative symptoms
less than normal behavior or an absence of normal behavior

Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia
dopamine, structural defects in brain, inflammation and genetic influences

Stress Vulnerability model
assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder that will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress

Personality disorders
a disorder in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions

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