psychology 47-49

Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is?
a.aggressive, persistent, and intentional.
b.selfish, habitual, and avoidable.
c.deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
d.biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change

Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as?
a. deviant. b.disinhibiting. c.dysfunctional. d.disorganized.

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of?

Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry’s behavior is most characteristic of? phobia.
b.attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. c.generalized anxiety disorder.
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.?
a.more; increasing
b. less; decreasing c.more; decreasing
d.less; increasing

Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?
a.panic disorder
b.anorexia nervosa c.obsessive-compulsive disorder
d.attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

The major problem associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations?
a.were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia. b.encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity. c.led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
d.relieved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are?
a.sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured. b.maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
c.purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
d.learned habits that need to be extinguished.

The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of?

a.psychoanalytic theory.
b.the medical model.
d.the social-cognitive perspective.


The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of? circumstances and psychological factors.
b.biological evolution.
c.the DSM-IV-TR.
d.genetically influenced abnormalities.

It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures.?

a.learning perspective b.medical model perspective d.biopsychosocial approach


Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.

a.dissociative identity;disorder b.anorexianervosa c.schizophrenia


Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by?
b.the medical model.
c.the learning perspective.
d.the biopsychosocial approach.

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates?
a.the medical model.
b.the learning perspective.
c. linkage analysis.
d.a biopsychosocial approach.

The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.?

The DSM-IV-TR does NOT?
a.include a classification of personality disorders.
b.explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
c.include a very broad range of psychological disorders.
d.provide reliable guidelines for diagnosing psychological disorders.

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to?
a.facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
b.shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.
c.avoid invading clients’ psychological privacy.
d.reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five axes of the?

DSM-IV-TR is most likely to be criticized for?

a.attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it.
b.classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered.
c.failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors.
d.inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological disorders.


A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often?
a.bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
b.represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it.
c.interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders.
d.interfere with effective treatment of these disorders.

David Rosenham and his fellow researchers were admitted as patients into various hospitals after they falsely complained of auditory hallucinations. After hospital clinicians analyzed these patients’ quite normal life histories, the?
a.patients were typically discharged from the hospital in less than a day after admission.
b.clinicians refused to prescribe any medications for these patients.
c. patients actually began to experience auditory hallucinations.
d.clinicians identified patient life history dynamics that contributed to a psychological disorder.

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of?
a. the medical model.
b.linkage analysis.
c.self-fulfilling prophecies.
d.the psychoanalytic perspective

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of?
a.linkage analysis.
b.diagnostic labels.
c.the medical model.
d.the biopsychosocial approach.

A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M’Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to?
a. have schizophrenia. depressed. manic. insane.

A World Health Organization study of 14 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.?

d.the United States


Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate?
b.depression. c.schizophrenia. d. dissociative disorders.

Mental health workers are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is?
a.consciously motivated.
b. difficult to change. c.biologically influenced.
d.personally distressful.

Mental health workers would be likely to identify alcohol dependence as a psychological disorder because it is?
a. personally dysfunctional.
b.socially unacceptable. c.ethically unjustifiable. d.unconsciously motivated.

ADHD is most clearly characterized by?
a. delusions. b.distractibility. c.dissociation. d.catatonia.

Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic. Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of?
a.generalized anxiety disorder.
b.antisocial personality disorder.
c.attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. d.obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the?
a.psychoanalytic theory.
b. humanistic perspective.
c.medical model. d.biopsychosocial approach.

Mira claims that alcohol dependence is a disease that, like pneumonia, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with?
a.the biopsychosocial approach. b.psychoanalytic theory.
c.the medical model.
d.the social-cognitive perspective.

If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to?
a.psychoanalytic theory.
b.the medical model.
c.the social-cognitive perspective.
d.the DSM-IV-TR.

To call psychological disorders “sicknesses” is especially likely to encourage research supporting the?
a. biopsychosocial approach.
b. learning perspective. perspective.
d.medical model.

A biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse would be most likely to emphasize
that substance abuse is simply a lifestyle choice and not a psychological disorder.?
a.the distinction between consciously and unconsciously motivated substance abuse.
b.the similarities between substance abuse disorders and personality disorders.
c.the interactive influences of nature and nurture on substance abuse.
d.that substance abuse is simply a lifestyle choice and not a psychological disorder.

Dr. Garcia emphasizes that psychological disorders result from the interactive influences of individual genes, mood-related perceptions, and cultural definitions of normality and disorder. The doctor’s emphasis best illustrates?
a.the learning perspective.
b.a biopsychosocial approach.
c. the medical model. d.DSM-IV-TR.

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders?
b. prevent
c. explain
d. identify

In a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be “hearing voices.” This study best illustrated the negative effects of?
a.the medical model. b.psychoanalytic theory.
c.linkage analysis. d.diagnostic labels.

After Anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor’s tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. This best illustrates the?
a.value of the psychoanalytic perspective. b.shortcomings of the medical model. c.unreliability of DSM-IV-TR.
d.biasing power of diagnostic labels

People express ________ sympathy for men suffering depression than for women suffering depression. They express ________ sympathy for women plagued by alcohol dependence than for men plagued with alcohol dependence.?
a.less; less
b.more; more
c.less; more
d. more; less

If individuals expect someone labeled as mentally ill to be hostile, they may act in unfriendly ways that provoke that person to respond with hostility. This illustrates the dangers of?
a.the medical model.
b.linkage analysis.
c.self-fulfilling prophecies.
d.the biopsychosocial approach.

Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding?
c.catatonia. d.agoraphobia.

Researchers recently estimated that approximately ________ percent of adult Americans had suffered a clinically significant psychological disorder during the prior year.?

Immigrants to the United States from Mexico average ________ mental health than Mexican-Americans born in the United States. Immigrants to the United States from Asia average ________ mental health than Asian-Americans born in the United States.?
a.better; poorer b.improves; better c.better; better
d. poorer; poorer

The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of .________?
a.antisocial personality disorder; schizophrenia b.major depression; bipolar disorder c.obsessive-compulsive disorder; phobias d.major depression; alcohol abus

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A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in a person’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors is most clearly an indication of a) free-floating anxiety. b) dissociation. c) learned helplessness. d )a psychological disorder. d )a psychological disorder. Inattention, hyperactivity, and …

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