Psychology: Careless and Disorganized, Discomfort we Feel

Schizophrenia
A disorder whose name means “split mind” which represents a split of the mind from reality
Multiple Personality
Disorder that refers to a fracturing of the personality into separate personalities unaware of each other.
the amount of shock the victim actually received
In all of Milgrim’s obedience experiments, participants were deceived about:
depression
Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRI’s) are frequently prescribed for the treatment of:
role-playing on attitudes
Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:
free association
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes m and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique know as:
altruism
When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994, Missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated:
desensitization
If watching a steady diet of violence in media eventually causes Tom to not be bothered by screen violence any more, this effect is called:
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:
Psychologists often do not agree on how to interpret the results of this test
The major reason for the unreliability of the Rorschach test is that:
systematic desensitization
Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for a telephone and then calling a potential date. The therapist’s technique best illustrates the process of:
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch “Be a safe driver” sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive “Drive Carefully” sign in their front yards. This best illustrates:
conscientiousness
a person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the big five trait dimension of:
self-actualization
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for:
generalized anxiety disorder
Ryan, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his hear begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Ryan most likely suffers from a(n):
scapegoat theory
Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of:
antipsychotic drugs
Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
superordinate goals
after their country was ravaged by a series of earthquakes , two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their differences and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of:
mirror-image perceptions
in most desegregated schools, ethnic groups re-segregate themselves in the lunchrooms. People in each group often think they would welcome more contact with the other group, but they assume that the other group does not reciprocate the wish. This pattern of thinking best illustrates:
Superego
Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine’s
behavior therapy
In one treatment for bed wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid sensitive pad that when wet, triggers and alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of:
dissociation
a sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of:
self-serving bias
although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates:
the mere exposure effect
When Armen first heard the hit song “stacy’s mom” he wasn’t at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen’s reaction illustrates:
there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia
Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that:
dopamine
Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for:
fail to interpret the incident as an emergency
the presence of many bystanders at the scene of an emergency increase the likelihood that any individual bystander will:
become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses
Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients:
self-fulfilling prophecies
the country of Superlia increase the size of its military force because its leaders inappropriately anticipated that their rival, the country of Piropia, would do the same. The Piropians subsequently felt it was necessary to respond to the Superlian military buildup with a military expansion of their own. The Piropian response best illustrates the danger of:
biasing power of diagnostic labels
After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the:
electroconvulsive therapy
Adelle’s feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have not improved with psychotherapy or drug therapy, and have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
social loafing
class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers. Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group’s. This situation is most likely to lead to:
frustration-aggression principle
After Ravi lost the student election for president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen presidents’ reputations Ravi’s behavior is best explained in terms of the:
reciprocal determinism
Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increase his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by:
learned response
Diego has become increasingly involved in violent fights at school because this gains him the attention and respect of many classmates. This most clearly suggest that his aggression is a(n):
deindividuation
individuals who are normally law-abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. This change in behavior is best understood in therms of:
displacement
While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor’s treatment of students as an example of :
agoraphobia
sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home.Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of:
Lithium
Edith, a 45 year old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and over activity. The best drugs most likely to prove beneficial to her is:
obsessive-compulsive disorder
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of:
learning
Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke’s therapist suggest that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood
free association; active listening
Freud is to________ as Rogers is to__________.
an internal locus of control
Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates:
pluralistic rather than monolithic
In Erwin Staub’s The Roots of Evil (discussed in lecture, Which of the following was not a characteristic of societies prone to genocide:
how people explain other’s behavior
Attribution theory was designed to account for:
a token economy
In order to encourage Mrs. Coleman, a withdrawn schizophrenia patient, to be more socially active, institutional staff members giver her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff members are making use of:
a reciprocity norm
After the Greenway family accepted their neighbor’s invitation to Thanksgiving dinner, Mrs. Greenway felt obligated to invite the neighbors to Christmas dinner. Mrs. Greenway’s sense of obligation most likely resulted from:
schizophrenia
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from:
aversive conditioning.
In programs to treat alcoholism, clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. The therapist is using a technique known as:
the fundamental attribution error
Carol is restless during class because her professor’s distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol’s restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of:
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:
a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal
A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by:
companionate love
The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as
dopamine
Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for:
aversive conditioning
To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using:
operant conditioning
A token economy represents an application of the principles of
more attractive than most individual faces because the averaged face was more symmetrical
College students judged an averaged, composite face as
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to:
associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli
Systematic desensitization involves:
frustration
According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from:
take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions
Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to
dissociative
Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of ________ disorders.
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are:
psychoanalytic
According to the ___ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produce by unconscious mental energy associated with repressed impulses
neuroscience
It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.
traits
Consistent characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called:
antisocial personality disorder
Which of the following disorders is more common among men than women?
increased expectation of negative outcomes
Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n):
the placebo effect
Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to
many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters
Violent pornographic and slasher movies often perpetuate the myth that
delusions
Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the “King of the Universe.” Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from:
projection
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:
expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships
Transference refers to a client’s:
emergency is being observed by a number of other people
The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the
client-centered therapist
Empathic understanding of the patient’s subjective experiences is a major goal of a:
behavior
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is least likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.
depression
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with:
experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar
The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people:
anxiety disorders
Antidepressant drugs are also increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of:
the “learner” was placed in a different room from the “teacher”
In Milgram’s obedience experiments, “teachers” were most likely to deliver high levels of shock when:
self-concept
Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality
behavior modification
Critics of ________ have expressed a concern that appropriate patient behaviors will disappear following the discontinuation of a token economy.
personality traits; situational constraints
We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.
the reciprocity norm
After she received a free hand-painted Christmas ornament from a religious organization, Mrs. Montevecchi felt obligated to mail a cash donation to the organization. Her response to the free gift best illustrates the impact of:
cognitive dissonance
The discomfort we feel when two thoughts (or a thought and behavior) are inconsistent is called:
schizophrenia
Flat affect and delusions are symptoms most closely associated with
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective
The placebo effect refers to:
offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person
Obsessions are:
an external locus of control
The perception that one’s fate is determined by luck reflects:
cognitive therapy
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia
Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that:
post-traumatic stress disorder
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of:
a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness
The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by:
groupthink
The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:
schizophrenia
A breakdown in selective attention is most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from:
social inequalities
Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying:
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:
audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced
Social loafing is most likely to occur among:
free association
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is:
id
When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his
superego
Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine’s
the boys’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother
The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe
regression.
4. Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy’s behavior best illustrates
projection.
5. Abel mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abel is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abel’s belief that his classmates are hostile shows which defense mechanism?
collective unconscious
6. Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
the false consensus effect.
7. People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best illustrates
unconditional positive regard
8. Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
trait
9. A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as a(n)
neuroticism.
10. Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
reciprocal determinism
11. Because Mr. Martin trusts his employees, he treats them kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by
an external locus of control.
12. The perception that your fate is determined by luck reflects
learned helplessness
13. After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Stein became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Stein’s reaction most clearly illustrates
self-serving bias
14. Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
a panic attack
15. While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from
agoraphobia
16. Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of
dissociative disorder
17. Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
a conversion disorder
18. During a heated argument with his father, Mike was suddenly unable to move his right arm. Medical examinations are unable to detect a physiological basis for the paralysis. It is likely that Mike suffers from
major depressive disorder
19. For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
mania
20. Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers’ cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into “real racing machines.” When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of
depression
21. Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
social-cognitive
22. A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist’s interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective
delusions
23. Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the “King of the Universe.” Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from
hallucinations
24. Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from
dopamine
25. Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for
psychoanalysis
26. Tyrone’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
transference
27. Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
Humanistic
28. Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ________ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment.
behavior therapy
29. In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
operant conditioning
30. Praising socially withdrawn children when they have eye contact with others and ignoring them after a temper tantrum best illustrates an application of
cognitive-behavior therapy
31. Melissa’s therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melissa should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her 5-year-old son. This suggestion best illustrates
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
32. The placebo effect refers to
schizophrenia
33. Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of
Mark, who feels so depressed that he recently tried to commit suicide
34. Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from electroconvulsive therapy?
deep-brain stimulation
35. Using implanted electrodes to inhibit activity in an area of the cortex that triggers negative emotions is called
the fundamental attribution error
36. A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger’s violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality best illustrates
situational attributions
37. In explaining our own behavior or the behavior of those we know well, we often resort to
the central route to persuasion
38. Magazine computer ads seldom feature endorsements from Hollywood stars or great athletes. Instead, they offer detailed information for consumers to develop more positive opinions about the company’s products. This advertising strategy best illustrates
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
39. After giving in to her friends’ request that she drink alcohol with them, 16-year-old Jessica found that she couldn’t resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. Her experience best illustrates
cognitive dissonance theory.
40. When no weapons of mass destruction were found following the U.S. invasion of Iraq, some Americans revised their memories of the main rationale for going to war. The text author suggests that we can best explain why people changed their memories in terms of
social loafing
41. Class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers. Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group’s paper. This situation is most likely to lead to
groupthink
42. The NASA executive who made the final decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger was shielded from information and dissenting views that might have led to a delay of the tragic launch. This best illustrates the dangers of
ingroup bias
43. Six-year-old Eddie believes that boys are better than girls, while 5-year-old Arianne believes that girls are better than boys. Their beliefs most clearly illustrate
the just-world phenomenon
44. A readiness to assume that enslaved people deserve the terrible treatment they receive best illustrates
wide cultural variations in aggressiveness
45. An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for
modeling
46. Parents who discipline their children with beatings are often teaching aggression through the process of
catharsis hypothesis
47. Research on the effects of playing violent video games most clearly provides evidence that disconfirms the
the mere exposure effect
48. When Alan first heard the hit song “Gotta Love It,” he wasn’t at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Alan’s reaction illustrates
social traps
49. After a yearlong drought, the city of Pine Bluffs has banned all lawn sprinkling. Many residents believe, however, that continued watering of their own lawn will have little effect on total water reserves. Consequently, there is a disastrous drain on city water reserves caused by widespread illegal sprinkling. This incident best illustrates the dynamics of
mirror-image perceptions
50. In most desegregated schools, ethnic groups still sit with their own group in the lunchrooms. People in each group often think they would welcome more contact with the other group, but they assume that the other group does not reciprocate the wish. This pattern of thinking best illustrates

A short attention span is an early warning sign of schizophrenia One cluster of personality disorders marked by anxiety is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. avoidant WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is Preventing her from functioning effectively Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive …

biopsychosocial approach. An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by phobia Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or …

Dissociative disorder Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Hypochondriasis Interpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

One of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia includes an expressionless face. One way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to frequently talk to their friends about their negative thoughts and depressive feelings WE WILL WRITE A …

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