psych ch 12 test 3

psychopathology
the study of abnormal behavior

situational context
the social or enviromental setting of a person’s behavior

subjective discomfort
emotional distress or emotional pain

maladaptive
anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life

sociocultural perspective
perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the product of the learning and shaping of behavior within the context of family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist

cultural relativity
the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place

culture-bound syndromes
disorders found only in particular cultures

psychological disorder
any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life

biological need
model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body

cognitive psychologists
psychologists who study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize info

biopsychological model
perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences

anxiety disorders
disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness

free-floating anxiety
anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source

phobia
an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity

social phobia
fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation

specific phobia
fear of objects or specific situations or events

claustrophobia
fear of being in a small, enclosed space

acrophobia
fear of heights

agoraphobia
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible

panic attack
sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying

panic disorder
disorder in which panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life

panic disorder with agoraphobia
fear of leaving one’s familiar surroundings because one might have a panic attack in public

obsessive-compulsive disorder
disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create
anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act

acute stress disorder (ASD)
a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to “relive” the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event

posttraumatic stess disorder (PTSD)
a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting more than 1 month

generalized anxiety disorder
disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, which last 6 months or more

magnification
the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important that they actually are

all-or-nothing thinking
the tendency to believe that one’s performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure

overgeneralization
the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a neverending pattern of defeat and failure

minimization
the tendency to give little or no importance to one’s successes or positive events and traits

affect
in psychology, a term indicating “emotion” or “mood”

mood disorders
disorders in which mood is severely disturbed

major depression
severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances

manic
having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability

bipolar disorder
severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a mood disorder caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months

anorexia nervosa (anorexia)
a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs

bulimia nervosa (bulimia)
a condition in which a person develops a cycle of “bingeing” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain

schizophrenia
severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality

psychotic
term applied to a person who is no longer able to perceive what is real and what is fantasy

delusions
false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness

delusional disorder
a psychotic disorder in which the primary symptom is one or more delusions

hallucinations
false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist

flat affect
a lack of emotional responsiveness

disorganized
type of schizophrenia in which behavior is bizarre and childish, and thinking, speech, and motor actions are very disordered

catatonic
type of schizophrenia in which the person experiences periods of statuelike immobility mixed with occasional bursts of energetic, frantic movement, and talking

paranoid
type of schizophrenia in which the person suffers from delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucinations

positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occure in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking

negative symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia that are less than normal beahvior or an absense of normal behavior; poor attention, flat affect, and poor speech production

stress-vulnerability model
explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will result in the development of that disorder under the right conditions of enviromental or emotional stress

personality disorders
disorders in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions

b 1.) Which of the following statements is false? a. Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression. b. Someone suffering from depression will set better only with therapy or medication. c. Compared with men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable …

Which of the following statements is false? b. someone suffering from depression will get better only with therapy or medication. The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder dramatically increases if you c. have a parent or sibling with the …

psychological disorder significant dysfunction in persons thoughts feelings or behaviors maladaptive interfere with normal day to day life WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample ADHD attention deficit …

Trephining in ancient times holes were cut in an ill person’s head to let out evil spirits What did Hippocrates believe caused mental illness? an imbalance in the body’s four humors WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

A serious criticism of the ____ model is that the patient becomes a passive recipient of treatment. Medical A person who feels euphoric and hyperactive may be experiencing A manic episode WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Postpartum Psychosis A rare and severe form of depression that occurs in women just after giving birth and include delusional thinking and hallucinations. Postpartum Depression Depression occurring within a year after giving birth in about 10 percent of women and …

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