Presenting participants with different versions of a videotaped confession in order to study person perception is an example of a(n) _____ manipulation.

straightforward

Experimenter expectancy or bias effects can be reduced by

all of these

Investigators will sometimes use deception in the procedures to address the problem of

demand characteristics.

After the data have been collected, the researcher tells participants the purpose of the study, the results expected, and the practical implications of the research. This process is referred to as

debriefing.

A manipulation in which participants are run individually versus as a group is an important consideration regarding the _____ of the manipulation.

cost

In general, _____ manipulations are less costly than _____ manipulations.

straightforward; staged

Professor Smith surveys her students in order to examine their preferences for an individual or a group research project. The responses Professor Smith collects would be an example of what type of measures?

self-report

Bob is conducting research on high school students’ motivation. He believes one group of students to be more motivated than another simply because they are in an honors class. This belief may result in a(n)

experimenter expectancy effect.

A criminal investigator measures a suspect’s change in perspiration in response to questions regarding a burglary. The investigator is using which type of physiological measure.

GSR (galvanic skin response)

In the early stages of a research project, the researcher would want as _____ as possible in order to demonstrate that a relationship between variables exists.

strong of a manipulation

While in a shopping mall, a marketing researcher stops and asks you which you prefer, soda in a bottle or soda in a can. Your response would be an example of a _____ measure.

self-report

Statistical analysis of the data is

used to decide whether a relationship was found.

A researcher who measures the speed of helping in an emergency is using a ________ measure.

behavioral

Which physiological measure is frequently used to measure muscle tension and stress?

EMG (electromyogram)

Participants consume 8, 16, 24, or 32 ounces of alcohol and are then asked to recite the alphabet as quickly as possible. The amount of time it takes the participant to correctly recite the alphabet would be an example of a _____ measure.

behavioral

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is used as a measure of

brain activity.

Experimenter bias effects can occur when the experimenter

all of these

A psychologist is interested in the effect of physical attractiveness on ratings of punishment assigned to a driver in an automobile accident. Participants read an account of the accident and receive a written description of a physically attractive or unattractive defendant. The manipulation of attractiveness would be an example of a(n) _____ manipulation.

straightforward

What is the purpose of a pilot study?

all of these

The electromyogram (EMG) is used as a measure of

muscle tension

When planning an experimental manipulation, one should consider

all of these

Using the strongest possible manipulation

all of these

Rachel is interested in examining the math skills of boys versus girls in the sixth grade. She administers a series of math problems to both groups and asks them to solve as many problems as they can within a 15-minute period. She finds that both groups are able to answer only 2% of the problems. Rachel’s results may be due to a _____ effect.

floor

Adam measures the length of time two people spend gazing into one another’s eyes as an indication of interpersonal attraction. Adam is using which type of measure

behavioral

It is policy in a school district to inform teachers in the fall whether any of their new students had previously been identified as having behavior or learning problems. This policy will probably

all of these

A researcher examined the effect of lighting on learning. Randomly assigned participants learned material while using a 100-watt or a 125-watt bulb. There were no differences between the two groups. The nonsignificant results may have occurred because of

insufficient strength of the manipulation.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of staged manipulations? Staged manipulations

are used to involve participants in what they perceive as an ongoing social situation.

A manipulation check is used to determine whether

the independent variable was successfully manipulated.

Dr. Mills measures participants’ brain wave activity in order to study the brain’s response to sounds of varying frequencies. Dr. Mills is likely to be using which type of physiological measure?

EEG (electroencephalogram)

Why would an investigator use more than one dependent measure?

It may be useful to know if the IV affects some measures but not others.

In general, staged manipulations are _____ than straightforward manipulations.

more costly

The galvanic skin response (GSR) is used as a measure of

anxiety

Which of the following is a common reason for using a staged manipulation? The researcher desires to

simulate a real world situation.

Which of the following offers a solution to the problem of experimenter bias?

automated procedures

Which of the following is a behavioral measure? An investigator measures

all of these

A manipulation check is especially important in studies

when nonsignificant results are obtained.

Which type of manipulation is carried out by manipulating variables with instructions and stimulus presentations?

straightforward

During the debriefing period of an experiment, participants

all of these

A confederate is a person who

poses as a participant

In a study examining the effect of appearance on judgments of criminal behavior, a researcher asks questions about the surroundings and victim in order to disguise the dependent measures in the study. These unrelated questions are referred to as

filler items

When participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or control condition, the researcher has used a ________ technique.

single-blind

Participants’ responses to interviews and questionnaires are _______ measures.

self-report

You conduct an experiment on the effect of anxiety on test performance. The results turn out to be statistically nonsignificant. Now you don’t know if anxiety truly has no effect on performance or whether you had faulty procedures. How could this have been avoided? You could have conducted a(n)

manipulation check

Any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of the purpose of the study is called a(n)

demand characteristic

Research proposals are often written because they

all of these

If all participants received the minimal scores for their performance, the results may be due to a _____ effect.

floor

The strongest possible manipulation should not be used if it results in

extreme, unrealistic situations

Experiments conducted in field settings generally minimize which one of the following?

demand characteristics

Strong manipulations are used to ________ the effect of the ________ variable.

maximize; independent

When a researcher submits a paper to a journal for publication, other researchers knowledgeable in the area of research carefully scrutinize the paper and recommend acceptance or rejection. This process is known as

peer review

When using more than one dependent measure in a study, the researcher should

all of these

While Leo is performing a cognitive task, a researcher uses a physiological measure that scans various areas of his brain. The researcher is most likely using a(n)

functional MRI

In an experimental study on gender bias in hiring, after being presented with the stimulus materials, participants were able to determine the purpose of the study. This problem is an example of

a demand characteristic.

Ralph has a confederate cut in front of a person who is either second or ninth in line at a grocery store checkout counter. He then records the number of verbal responses the person makes toward the confederate as a measure of aggression. The manipulation employed in this study is an example of a _____ manipulation

staged

Staged manipulations

all of these

A researcher has a confederate drop a stack of papers in front of one person or a group of people. She then measures the amount of time it takes for the confederate to receive help in picking up the papers. The manipulation employed in this experiment would be an example of a

staged

In drug research, a(n) _____ has occurred when it is unclear whether improvement is due to properties of the drug or the expectation about the effect of the drug.

placebo effect

A researcher presents his dog with a bowl of normal dog food and a bowl of vitamin-enriched dog food. He then records the amount of each type of food the dog consumes as a measure of his dog’s food preference. What kind of measure has the researcher used?

behavioral

A researcher designed an experiment to test the effects of a top-secret vitamin supplement on the strength of weight-lifters. Thimble lifting would not be a useful measure of strength because thimble lifting

is not a sensitive measure of strength.

A placebo group

both receives an inert substance and controls for certain alternative explanations.

A ceiling effect occurs when a measure results in too many

maximum scores

Event manipulations often involve the use of

confederates

Without informing the participants, a researcher assigns them to either an experimental or placebo group. The researcher’s assistants who test the participants do not know who belongs in which group. The researcher has used a

double-blind technique

A researcher is interested in examining the effect of caffeine on driving performance. In order to rule out a change in behavior brought about because of participants’ expectations about the effect of caffeine, the researcher should include

a balanced placebo design

An important reason NOT to use the strongest manipulation possible is that it may

create a situation very different from a real-world situation

Which of the following physiological measures would you recommend a researcher use to compare brain images between individuals with and without Alzheimer’s disease?

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A researcher wants to examine the effect of noise level on reading comprehension. He finds that regardless of the noise level, all participants tested received the maximum scores for their performance. The results may be due to a _____ effect.

ceiling

An investigator interested in the effectiveness of various memory strategies instructs randomly assigned participants to use either imagery or repetitive silent speech to remember a list of 20 words. Two weeks later she measures participants’ recall of the words. The imagery group recalls an average of 2.6 words while the repetition group recalls an average of 1.9 words. She concludes there is no difference in the effectiveness of these memory strategies because the results are not statistically significant. Is this a reasonable conclusion?

No, because a dependent variable measured after a two-week delay may lack the sensitivity to detect a difference

Scientists communicate their findings by

all of these

The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) is unable to detect

curvilinear relationships

An automobile repair shop reports that half of the automobiles they repair have a resale value below $ 8000. In this example, the $8000 represents which measure of central tendency?

median

Multiple correlation utilizes many _____ variables and one _____ variable.

predictor; criterion

Which of the following statistics indicates how much scores differ from each other?

standard deviation

Which of the following would be an appropriate measure of central tendency to summarize interval data?

Any one of these would be appropriate.

A professional baseball scout uses the batting average, on base percentage, throwing ability, and running speed of amateur baseball players to predict their success as professional baseball players. This strategy would be an example of using _____ as a predictor of likelihood of success.

a multiple correlation

Measures of _____ indicate how scores are spread out in a distribution, while measures of _____ indicate how a sample scores as a whole.

variability; central tendency

Structural models

are expected patterns of relationships among a set of variables

A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ and ________ of the relationship between two variables.

direction; strength

Restricting the range of a variable has what effect on the correlation coefficient? It _____ it.

decreases

The correlation coefficient

reflects how strongly variables are related to one another.

Which of the following would be an appropriate measure of central tendency to summarize ordinal data?

median

If Dean Johnson takes an aptitude test for a position with Engineers Incorporated, the criterion variable is Dean’s

performance as an engineer

Jim examines the effect of type of music (jazz, rock, rap) on task performance. Type of music represents which type of measurement scale?

nominal

The finding that “the more classes a person takes, the more money they spend on textbooks” illustrates _____ relationship.

a positive

An ordinal scale of measurement lacks which one of the following properties of a scale?

equal intervals

Brewster measures the height and age of four- and five-year-olds. To his surprise, he finds no correlation between height and age. What is most likely responsible for his results?

He has restricted the range of the variables.

Any set of scores may be described by measures of ________ and ________.

central tendency; variability

A predictor variable is generally analogous to a(n) ________ variable in the experimental method.

independent

A correlation coefficient is always used

to describe the strength of the relationship between two variables.

A researcher asks students to rate their attitude toward an increase in tuition on a 7-point scale ranging from “opposed” to “in favor of”. The researcher has used which type of measurement scale?

interval

Which of the following scales of measurement lacks numeric properties?

nominal

The measure of central tendency that reflects the most frequent score is the

mode

In studying the effect of temperature on ice cream cone sales, a researcher could record the number of ice cream cones sold on cold versus hot days. The researcher would be most interested in

comparing group means

You find that the correlation between two variables is +.63 but that this correlation drops to +.20 when a third variable is partialed out. You should conclude that

the third variable was largely responsible for the original correlation between the variables

Which of the following is not true of the standard deviation? It

is the square of the variance

Which of the following is NOT a measure of central tendency?

variance

Which statement is least correct regarding the correlation coefficient?

The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship.

A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A’s, 10 students received B’s, 18 students received C’s, 4 students received D’s and 1 student received an F. In statistical terms, this is a

frequency distribution.

Researchers studying the effectiveness of a diet on heart disease separated participants into two groups, those with Type A personalities and those with Type B personalities. What scale characterizes the personality variable?

nominal

Which of the following is least correct regarding the effect size? The effect size

can range from -1.0 to +1.0

One way for a researcher using the correlational method to improve the design is to

both collect data on any likely third variables and report partial correlation coefficients.

Mel finds the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is -.63. However, the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time is +.52. Mel can conclude

that the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.

John finds the Pearson r correlation coefficient between variable A and variable B to be 0.00. Before concluding there is no relationship between the variables, John should

construct a scatterplot of the data

In assessing the relationship between variable X and variable Y, the squared value of the correlation coefficient (r squared) is sometimes reported. This value represents

the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X

The _____ refers to the strength of association between variables.

effect size

The magnitude of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable is referred to as the

effect size

Ratio scales

have an absolute zero point

Why would a researcher employ structural modeling?

It allows a researcher to test how well data fit a theoretical model that describes the relationship among variables.

You are interested in the relationship between IQ scores and school achievement. Which one of the following situations is most likely to yield the highest correlation? You measure IQ and school achievement for students at the local high school in

the senior class

After establishing that there is a reasonably high correlation between two variables, a researcher can utilize a regression equation to make predictions about the _____ variable from the _____ variable.

criterion; predictor

All correlation coefficients

range from -1.00 to +1.00

When a researcher is interested in predicting some future behavior based on a person’s score on some other variable, he or she should

show a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ways of describing results discussed in your text?

Compare group assignments.

In a positive correlation, _____ scores on one variable are associated with _____ scores on the other variable.

high; high

Multiple correlation is a technique for

increasing accuracy of prediction.

At the beginning of the season, a sports writer gives her prediction of teams that will finish in the top three places in the eastern, central, and western divisions. Her prediction would be an example of using which type of measurement scale.

ordinal

The standard deviation would be an appropriate measure of variability only if the variable is measured on a(n) _____ scale.

interval

_____ is used to explore possible relationships among variables, while _____ is used to test how well theoretical models fit the obtained data.

Path analysis; Structural equation modeling

An interval scale is preferable to an ordinal scale because

more sophisticated statistics can be used

In a perfect relationship between two variables, r squared

would equal +1.00.

A researcher finds that out of 400 pet owners surveyed, 250 own only a dog, 125 own only a cat, and 25 own only a bird. Which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate for these data?

mode

A researcher obtains a -.87 correlation between job applicants’ ages and their likelihood to be hired, but she thinks job skills may be an important influence. She should calculate a(n)

partial correlation coefficient.

A negative value of r means that

those who score high on one variable tend to score low on the other.

Which of the following is not a measure of variability?

r squared

The range and the standard deviation are both

all of these

Dr.Greentree finds the r-squared value for days of sunlight (X) and plant growth (Y) to be +.48. Dr. Greentree can conclude

that 48% of the variability in plant growth can be accounted for by the number of days of sunlight.

What is the difference between an interval and a ratio scale? A ratio scale _____ while an interval scales does not.

has an absolute zero

When a line graph is employed to represent the number of subjects who received each possible score on a variable, this graph is called a frequency _____.

polygon

A host of a home repair program rates the difficulty of various home improvement projects. He assigns the level of difficulty by using hammers, 3 for very difficult, 2 for moderate, and 1 for easy. This measure is an example of a(n) _____ scale

ordinal

In a survey examining the number of 3rd- versus 6th-grade students who buy their lunches at school, the most appropriate description of the results would be to

compare group percentages.

A researcher measures the time it takes for subjects to press a button following a signal. This is a(n) ________ measure.

ratio scale

In a _____, a separate and distinct _____ is drawn to represent the number of people who received each possible score.

bar graph; bar

Jane Smith took an aptitude test for a position with Accountants Unlimited. She was hired the following week. The predictor variable is Jane’s

score on the aptitude test.

After obtaining the correlation between two variables, a researcher calculates a regression equation. This equation can be used to

predict a person’s score on one variable when only the score on the other variable is known.

A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A’s, 10 students received B’s, 18 students received C’s, 4 students received D’s and 1 student received an F. The grade of C would represent which measure of central tendency?

mode

In graphically depicting frequency distributions, _____ are used to display categorical variables while _____ are used to display quantitative variables.

bar graphs; histograms

A regression equation is used to

predict a score on the Y from a known score on the X

Which statement is least correct with regard to graphing the relationship between variables?

The distance between points on the measurement scale should be exaggerated to make the results appear more striking.

A(n) _____ allows a researcher to control statistically for the influence of a third variable.

partial correlation

Which of the following best represents use of an interval scale?

assessing students’ ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from “poor” to “excellent”

Henry finds that for automobile owners, as the price of gasoline increases, the amount of miles they drive in a week decreases. This finding would suggest _____ relationship.

a negative

A criterion variable is generally analogous to a(n) ________ variable in the experimental method.

dependent

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