Psych 101 Chapter 14

Psychological Disorder
A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, and behavior

Medical Model
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

Anxiety Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack

Phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

OCD
A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions) or both

PTSD
A disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

Mood Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder

Major Depressive Disoder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure

Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic depressive disorder)

Mania
A hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common

Schizophrenia
A psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression

Psychosis
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Delusions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Dissociative Disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder

Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight

Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting

Binge-Eating Disorder
Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa

Personality Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Self-Blaming Attributions
The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by

They fear it will extend the pathologizing of everyday life
The DSM-5 has added some diagnoses that concern many physicians and mental health workers because

Memory
The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of

Adrenaline
Researchers have found low levels of ________ in 13-year-old boys who were later convicted of a crime as 18- to 26-year-olds.

A viral infection contracted
Research evidence links the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to ________ during prenatal development.

Conditioning
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion highlights the impact of

Alcohol Use Disorder
The genes that put people at risk for antisocial personality disorder also increase the risk for

Hearing
The hallucinations experienced by those who suffer from schizophrenia are most likely to involve ________ things that are not there.

Fugue State
A reversible amnesia linked to DID. People have a hard time recalling memories, personality, and other aspects of the individual.

Feel overwhelmed by all they have to do
According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to

It develops slowly
Schizophrenia is said to be chronic when

Histrionic Personality Disorder
Seeking excessive attention, such as overly seductive behavior beginning in early childhood

Histrionic
One cluster of personality disorders marked by dramatic or impulsive behaviors is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.

Hallucinations
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce

Displaced responses to incompletely repressed impulses
The psychodynamic perspective would most likely view phobias as

Anxiety
Psychodynamic and learning theorists both agree that dissociative disorders, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD are symptoms that represent the person’s attempt to deal with

Later; Fewer
Recovery from a major depressive episode is likely to be permanent the ________ the first episodes appears and the ________ the number of previous episodes.

External and Temporary
To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both

Schizophrenia
Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for

Increase levels of norepinephrine
In treating depression, a psychiatrist would probably prescribe a drug that would

Thalamus
Schizophrenia victims have difficulty focusing attention. This is most likely to be related to a smaller-than-normal

With each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence
Research regarding depression indicates that

Antisocial Personality Disorder
The levels of stress hormones among adults with early teens with ________ were lower than average when they were children.

Led to some harsh and ineffective remedial effects
The major problem associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations

Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders
Which of the following statements concerning the labeling of disordered behaviors is NOT true?

Adrenaline
Researchers have found low levels of ________ in 13-year-old boys who were later convicted of a crime as 18- to 26-year-olds.

Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event
Which of the following is NOT true concerning depression?

Explain the causes of various psychological disorders
The DSM-5 does NOT

Schizophrenia
A reduced level of synchronized neural activity in the frontal lobes has been associated with symptoms of

Depression
According to Marin Seligman, the rise of Western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in

Depression
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with

Norepinephrine
Which neurotransmitter is present in overabundant amounts during the manic phase of bipolar disorder?

NSSI
Which of the following has been shown to be a risk factor for future suicide attempts?

Social-Cognitive
Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?

Glutamate
Some genes influence anxiety disorders by regulating levels of neurotransmitters such as ________, which influences activity in the brain’s alarm center.

Anxiety Disorders
Phobias and panic disorders are classified as

Begin to rebound from depression
The risk of suicide is greatest when people

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