PSYC 105 — Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

mental disorder
a persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment

medical model
abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures.

Conceptualizing abnormal thoughts and behaviors as illness suggests that a first step is to determine the nature of the problem through _______________
diagnosis

How to clinicians diagnosis?
seek to determine the nature of a person’s mental disorder by assessing
1.) signs (objectively observed indicators of a disorder) 2.) symptoms (subjectively reported behaviors, thoughts, andemotions) that suggest an underlying illness

Disorder
a common set of signs and symptoms.

Disease
known pathological process affecting the body.

Diagnosis
a determination as to whether a disorder or disease is present

Viewing mental disorders as medical problems reminds us that…
people who are suffering deserve care and treatment, not condemnation.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM),
classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.

Studies of large, representative samples of the U.S. population reveal that approximately ____ of Americans report experiencing at least one mental disorder during the course of their lives
half

comorbidity
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual

Of the half of American reporting experiencing a mental disorder, greater than 80% report __________
comorbidity

prognosis
a typical course over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure

biopsychosocial perspective
explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological, and social factors.

biological side
the focus is on genetic and epigenetic influences, biochemical imbalances, and abnormalities in brain structure and function

The psychological perspective
focuses on maladaptive learning and coping, cognitive biases, dysfunctional attitudes, and interpersonal problems.

True or False?

The observation that most disorders have both internal (biological and psychological) and external (environmental) causes has given rise to a theory known as the diathesis-stress model

True

diathesis-stress model
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.

Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC),
a new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them.

Potential DSM replacement

The conception of psychological disorders as diseases that have symptoms and possible cures is referred to as
a.) the medical model.
b.) physiognomy.
c.) the root syndrome framework.
d.) a diagnostic system.
a.) the medical model.

2. The DSM-5 is best described as a
a.) medical model.
b.) classification system.
c.) set of theoretical assumptions.
d.) collection of physiological definitions.
b.) classification system.

3. Comorbidity of disorders refers to
a.) symptoms stemming from internal dysfunction.
b.) the relative risk of death arising from a disorder.
c.) the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.
d.) the existence of disorders on a continuum from normal to abnormal.
c.) the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.

4. The RDoC aims to
a.) provide evidence for the disorders currently listed in the DSM-5.
b.) shift researchers from focusing on a symptom-based classification of mental disorders to a focus on underlying processes that may lead to mental disorders.
c.) prevent the negative consequences of labeling individuals with mental disorders.
d.) help researchers better describe the observed symptoms of mental disorders.
b.) shift researchers from focusing on a symptom-based classification of mental disorders to a focus on underlying processes that may lead to mental disorders.

Which is NOT included as a disruptive, impulse control, or conduct disorder in the DSM-5?
bulimia

In which nation is the prevalence of psychological disorders the LOWEST?
The People’s Republic of China

Marty is intellectually disabled. Daryl has been diagnosed with autism. Which statement is true?
Both Marty and Daryl have a neurodevelopmental disorder.

If one were to study the etiology of a mental illness, one would be studying the:
cause of the mental illness.

Lynn’s functioning has been impaired by major fluctuations in mood. Lynn may be diagnosed with a(n) _____ disorder.
bipolar

Problems controlling emotions and behaviors are MOST often seen in _____ disorders.
disruptive, impulse control, and conduct

Which set does NOT contain a discrepant element?
{external; environment; stress}
{biology; internal; stress}
{nature; diathesis; environment}
{stress; nature; nurture}
{external; environment; stress}

Nelson constantly worries that he is getting sick. He says he has many mysterious aches and pains, but the doctor can never find anything physically wrong with him. Nelson might have a(n) _____ disorder.
somatoform

Trey has been diagnosed with a disorder marked by major disruptions in consciousness, memory, or identity. Trey has been diagnosed with a(n) _____ disorder.
dissociative

Dawn has an intense phobia regarding blood and needles. Dawn may be diagnosed with a(n) _____ disorder.
anxiety

Juan displays major disturbances in perception, thought, language, emotion, and behavior. Juan may be diagnosed with a disorder on the _____ spectrum.
schizophrenia

Kira was born male. However, she lives as woman and experiences herself subjectively as female. Kira may be diagnosed with gender _____ disorder, which is characterized by an incongruity between an individual’s assigned gender and his or her expressed or experienced gender.
dysphoria

Jessica has been diagnosed with both anxiety and depression. The co-occurrence of two or more disorders, as seen in the case of Jessica, is called:
comorbidity.

Don suffered a stroke in his brain’s parietal lobe. This traumatic injury may cause a _____ disorder.
neurocognitive

Will exhibits an enduring pattern of suspicious thoughts and behavior that has led to problems in his life. Will might be diagnosed with a(n) _____disorder.
personality

Jessica hardly eats anything. When her family comments that she is too thin and needs to eat something, she refuses to eat and says that her body is covered with fat. She is MOST likely suffering from a(n) _____ disorder.
eating

Etiology is to prognosis as:
cause is to course.

Kathy constantly worries about her health. She complains of multiple physical symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, and a strange tingling all over her body. Kathy might have a(n):
somatoform disorder.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders:
These are conditions that begin early in development and cause significant impairments in functioning, such as intellectual disability (formerly called “mental retardation”), autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder.

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders:
This is a group of disorders characterized by major disturbances in perception, thought, language, emotion, and behavior.

Bipolar and Related Disorders:
These disorders include major fluctuations in mood—from mania to depression—and can include psychotic experiences, which is why they are placed between the psychotic and depressive disorders in DSM-5.

Depressive Disorders:
These are conditions characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressive mood.

Anxiety Disorders:
These are disorders characterized by excessive fear and anxiety that are extreme enough to impair a person’s functioning, such as panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and specific phobia.

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders:
These are conditions characterized by the presence of obsessive thinking followed by compulsive behavior in response to that thinking.

Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders:
These are disorders that develop in response to a traumatic event, such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

Dissociative Disorders:
These are conditions characterized by disruptions or discontinuity in consciousness, memory, or identity, such as dissociative identity disorders (formerly called “multiple personality disorder”).

Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders:
These are conditions in which a person experiences bodily symptoms (e.g., pain or fatigue) associated with significant distress or impairment.

Feeding and Eating Disorders:
These are problems with eating that impair health or functioning, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

Elimination Disorders:
These involve inappropriate elimination of urine or feces (e.g., bed-wetting).

Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders:
These are conditions involving problems controlling emotions and behaviors, such as conduct disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and kleptomania.

Sleep-Wake Disorders:
These are problems with the sleep-wake cycle, such as insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea.

Gender Dysphoria:
This is a single disorder characterized by incongruence between a person’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender.

Personality Disorders:
These are enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lead to significant life problems.

Sexual Dysfunctions:
These are problems related to unsatisfactory sexual activity, such as erectile disorder and premature ejaculation.

Neurocognitive Disorders:
These are disorders of thinking caused by conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or traumatic brain injury.

Other Mental Disorders:
This is a residual category for conditions that do not fit into one of the above categories but that are associated with significant distress or impairment, such as unspecified mental disorder due to a medical condition.
Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and Other Adverse Effects of Medication: These are problems with physical movement (e.g., tremors, rigidity) that are caused by medication.
Other Conditions that May be the Focus of Clinical Attention: These include problems related to abuse, neglect, relationship, or other problems.

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders:
This collection of disorders involves persistent use of substances or some other behavior (e.g., gambling) despite the fact that such behavior leads to significant problems.

Paraphilic Disorders:
These are conditions characterized by inappropriate sexual activity, such as pedophilic disorder.

anxiety disorder
the class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature. Among the anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-5 are phobic disorders, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder.

phobic disorders
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations

An individual with a phobic disorder recognizes that the fear is irrational but cannot prevent it from interfering with everyday functioning.

specific phobia
disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function.

Specific phobias fall into five categories:
(1) animals (e.g., dogs, cats, rats, snakes, spiders);
(2) natural environments (e.g., heights, darkness, water, storms);
(3) situations (e.g., bridges, elevators, tunnels, enclosed places);
(4) blood, injections, and injury;
(5) other phobias, including choking or vomiting; and in children, loud noises or costumed characters.

Approximately 12% of people in the United States will develop a specific phobia during their lives with rates slightly higher among women than men

Social phobia
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed

About 12% of men and 14% of women qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia at some time in their lives

preparedness theory of phobias
the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears

True or False?

Abnormalities in the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine are more common in individuals who report phobias than among people who don’t

True

True or False?

individuals with phobias sometimes show abnormally high levels of activity in the amygdala, an area of the brain linked with the development of emotional association

True

True or False?

social phobia may be due to a person’s subjective experience of the situation rather than an abnormal physiological stress response to such situations.

True

John Watson (1924) demonstrated many years ago, phobias can be ______________ ______________
classically conditioned

panic disorder
a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.

The acute symptoms of a panic attack typically last only a few minutes and include shortness of breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness, depersonalization (a feeling of being detached from one’s body) or derealization (a feeling that the external world is strange or unreal), and a fear that one is going crazy or about to die.

agoraphobia
a specific phobia involving a fear of public places.

Approximately _____% of the U.S. population reports having had at least one panic attack
22

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
called generalized because the unrelenting worries are not focused on any particular threat. GAD is a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance

Approximately ___% of people in the United States suffer from GAD at some time in their lives
6

Irrational worries and fears that undermine one’s ability to function normally are an indication of
a.) a genetic abnormality.
b.) dysthymia.
c.) diathesis.
d.) an anxiety disorder.
d.) an anxiety disorder.

2. A(n) __________ disorder involves anxiety tied to a specific object or situation.
a.) generalized anxiety
b.) environmental
c.) panic
d.) phobic
d.) phobic

3. Agoraphobia often develops as a result of
a.) preparedness theory.
b.) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
c.) panic disorder.
d.) social phobia.
c.) panic disorder.

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual’s functioning.

Kelly’s fear of germs leads her to wash her hands repeatedly throughout the day, often for a half hour or more, under extremely hot water. From which disorder does Kelly likely suffer?
a.) panic attacks
b.) obsessive-compulsive disorder
c.) phobia
d.) generalized anxiety disorder
b.) obsessive-compulsive disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind.

Which of the below is not a symptom of PTSD?
a.) chronic physiological arousal
b.) avoidance of things or places that might serve as reminders of the traumatic event
c.) recurrent, intrusive thoughts about the traumatic event
d.) impaired acquisition of conditioned fear responses
d.) impaired acquisition of conditioned fear responses

Mood disorders
mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature and take two main forms: depression (also called unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder (so named because people go from one end of the emotional pole [extreme depression] to the other [extreme mania]).

Major depressive disorder (or unipolar depression)
which we refer to here simply as “depression,” is a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbance.

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern

Depression facts
Approximately 18% of people in the United States meet criteria for depression at some point in their lives

On average, major depression lasts about 12 weeks

However, without treatment, approximately 80% of individuals will experience at least one recurrence of the disorder

Much like the anxiety disorders, the rate of depression is much higher in women (22%) than in men (14%)

Helplessness theory
a part of the cognitive model of depression, is the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (i.e., their own fault), stable (i.e., unlikely to change), and global (i.e., widespread).

bipolar disorder
a condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression).

expressed emotion
in this context is a measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder

Major depression is characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts at least
a.) 2 weeks.
b.) 1 week.
c.) 1 month.
d.) 6 months.
a.) 2 weeks.

2. Extreme mood swings between _______ characterize bipolar disorder.
a.) depression and mania
b.) stress and lethargy
c.) anxiety and arousal
d.) obsessions and compulsions
a.) depression and mania

Which factor has NOT been demonstrated to influence the likelihood that an individual will experience generalized anxiety disorder?
ethnicity

The average duration of a major depressive episode is:
12 weeks

If anxiety leads a person to study for an exam, then it is _____, but if it keeps the same person from leaving his or her home, then it is _____.
helpful; harmful

In an experiment, manic participants are asked to recall items from lists of negative, neutral, or positive words. In this experiment, recall score is a(n) _____ variable.
dependent

Molly has times when she begin to sweat, her pulse races, she experiences shortness of breath, and feels like she going to die. There appears to be nothing physically wrong with her. Her symptoms indicate she may have:
panic disorder

Which set contains a discrepant element?
{serotonin; stress; environment}
{gene; serotonin; diathesis}
{negative life event; environment; stress}
{diathesis; internal; gene}
{serotonin; stress; environment}

Bob constantly feels nervous, and describes his situation as a “low hum of anxiety,” with no particular trigger. Because of this, he feels restless, is unable to sleep, and cannot concentrate. Bob is MOST likely to have:
generalized anxiety disorder.

Every year, Maureen becomes melancholy when the days get shorter in the winter, and she usually feels better in the springtime. Maureen MOST likely has:
seasonal affective disorder.

Vera has become increasingly withdrawn during social gatherings. She is so afraid that she will do or say something embarrassing that she has begun to avoid social events altogether. Vera may be developing:
social phobia.

Monica has just experienced the first major depressive period in her life. She has about a(n) _____ chance of recurrence at some point.
80 percent

Which is NOT a mood disorder?
unipolar depression
seasonal affective disorder
social phobia
bipolar disorder
social phobia

John is a first-year college student at a local university. He was diagnosed with a condition that involves an irrational fear of public humiliation or embarrassment. John was MOST likely diagnosed with:
social phobia.

Sue constantly feels nervous for no particular reason. Because of this, she is always restless, is unable to sleep, and cannot concentrate. Sue is MOST likely suffering from:
generalized anxiety disorder

Tony keeps having episodes during which he begins to sweat, experiences shortness of breath, and feels like he is going to die. The results of all his medical tests are negative, and the specialists he consults cannot find anything physically wrong with him. His personal physician suggests that Tony may want to see a mental health professional because his symptoms indicate he may have:
panic disorder

True or False?

Schizophrenia is one of the most mystifying and devastating of all the mental disorders.

True

Schizophrenia
a psychotic disorder (psychosis is a break from reality) characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include
thoughts and behaviors not seen in those without the disorder
1.) Hallucinations
2.) Delusions
3.) Disorganized speech
4.) Grossly disorganized behavior

Hallucinations
false perceptual experiences that have a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation.

Delusions
patently false beliefs, often bizarre and grandiose, that are maintained in spite of their irrationality.

Disorganized speech
a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics.

Grossly disorganized behavior
behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances.

Catatonic behavior
marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity.

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors.

1.) emotional and social withdrawal
2.) apathy
3.) poverty of speech
4.) other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion.

These symptoms refer to things missing in people with schizophrenia.

Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
deficits in cognitive abilities, specifically in executive functioning, attention, and working memory.

Schizophrenia occurs in about ____% of the population
1

dopamine hypothesis
the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.

Schizophrenia is characterized by which of the following?
a.) hallucinations
b.) disorganized thoughts and behavior
c.) emotional and social withdrawal
d.) all of the above
d.) all of the above

2. Schizophrenia affects approximately _______ % of the population and accounts for approximately ______ % of admissions to state and county mental hospitals.
a.) 5; 20
b.) 5; 5
c.) 1; 1
d.) 1; 40
d.) 1; 40

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
a condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities.

Rate of ASD
60 per 10,000 children

Boys have higher rates of ASD than girls by a ratio of about 4:1.

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairments in functioning.

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by which of the following?
a.) communication deficits and restricted, repetitive behavior
b.) hallucinations and delusions
c.) suicidal thoughts
d,) all of the above
a.) communication deficits and restricted, repetitive behavior

2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
a.) must begin before the age of 7.
b.) never persists into adulthood.
c.) sometimes persists into adulthood.
d.) affects only boys.
c.) sometimes persists into adulthood.

Conduct disorder
a condition in which a child or adolescent engages in a persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious rule violations.

Approximately 9% of people in the United States report a lifetime history of conduct disorder

Which of the following are NOT symptoms of conduct disorder?
a.) aggression toward people or animals
b.) property destruction
c.) childhood adversities
d.) stealing from others
c.) childhood adversities

Personality disorders
enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functioning.

A. Odd/Eccentric
Paranoid
Distrust in others, suspicion that people have sinister motives. Apt to challenge the loyalties of friends and read hostile intentions into others’ actions. Prone to anger and aggressive outbursts but otherwise emotionally cold. Often jealous, guarded, secretive, overly serious.

Schizoid
Extreme introversion and withdrawal from relationships. Prefers to be alone, little interest in others. Humorless, distant, often absorbed with own thoughts and feelings, a daydreamer. Fearful of closeness, with poor social skills, often seen as a “loner.”

Schizotypal
Peculiar or eccentric manners of speaking or dressing. Strange beliefs. “Magical thinking” such as beliefs in ESP or telepathy. Difficulty forming relationships. May react oddly in conversation, not respond, or talk to self. Speech elaborate and difficult to follow. (Possibly a mild form of schizophrenia.)

B. Dramatic/Erratic
Antisocial
Impoverished moral sense or “conscience.” History of deception, crime, legal problems, impulsive and aggressive or violent behavior. Little emotional empathy or remorse for hurting others. Manipulative, careless, callous. At high risk for substance abuse and alcoholism

Borderline
Unstable moods and intense, stormy personal relationships. Frequent mood changes and anger, unpredictable impulses. Self-mutilation or suicidal threats or gestures to get attention or manipulate others. Self-image fluctuation and a tendency to see others as “all good” or “all bad.”

Histrionic
Constant attention seeking. Grandiose language, provocative dress, exaggerated illness, all to gain attention. Believes that everyone loves them. Emotional, lively, overly dramatic, enthusiastic, and excessively flirtatious. Shallow and labile emotions. “Onstage.”

Narcissistic
Inflated sense of self-importance, absorbed by fantasies of self and success. Exaggerates own achievement, assumes others will recognize they are superior. Good first impressions but poor longer-term relationships. Exploitative of others.

C. Anxious/Inhibited
Avoidant
Socially anxious and uncomfortable unless they are confident of being liked. In contrast with schizoid person, yearns for social contact. Fears criticism and worries about being embarrassed in front of others. Avoids social situations due to fear of rejection.

Dependent
Submissive, dependent, requiring excessive approval, reassurance, and advice. Clings to people and fears losing them. Lacking self-confidence. Uncomfortable when alone. May be devastated by end of a close relationship or suicidal if breakup is threatened.

Obsessive-compulsive
Conscientious, orderly, perfectionist. Excessive need to do everything “right.” Inflexibly high standards and caution can interfere with their productivity. Fear of errors can make them strict and controlling. Poor expression of emotions. (Not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder).

Approximately ___% of the U.S. population has a personality disorder according to the DSM-5
15

antisocial personality disorder (APD)
a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.

1.) Sociopath
2.) Psychopath

Which of the following is a common feature of personality disorders?
a.) failure to take other people’s perspectives
b.) excessive fear of rejection
c.) unstable moods
d.) overly dramatic attempts at attention seeking
a.) failure to take other people’s perspectives

Jim was diagnosed as having antisocial personality disorder based on the fact that he
a.) is emotionally distant, suspicious of others, and has an intense fear of rejection.
b.) avoids social interaction, has very poor social skills, and is often seen as a “loner.”
c.) is very peculiar in his speech and dress and has difficulty forming relationships.
d.) is manipulative, impulsive, and coldhearted, showing little emotional empathy.
d.) is manipulative, impulsive, and coldhearted, showing little emotional empathy.

Suicide
intentional self-inflicted death

suicide attempt
a self-inflicted injury from which a person has at least some intention of dying

nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)
the direct, deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die.

In the United States, those at highest risk for suicide are
a.) men.
b.) White people.
c.) those with a mental disorder.
d.) all of the above
d.) all of the above

Nonsuicidal self-injury occurs among ______% of adolescents.
a.) 1-2
b.) 3-5
c.) 15-20
d.) 50
c.) 15-20

About _____ percent of boys and _____ percent of girls meet the criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
10; 5

When asked about his family, Gerard begins to recite Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Raven” and then sings the theme song from a 1960s television show. Gerard is MOST closely exhibiting:
disorganized speech

John and Sara’s daughter is about three years old. She rarely makes eye contact with them and seems lost in her own world. She does not seem to make friends with other children. Her diagnosis is MOST likely to be:
autism spectrum disorder

Four-year-old Brandon rarely speaks and has little interest in interacting with his siblings or parents. His interest seems completely absorbed by a few of his toys, and sometimes, he will spin around and around for nearly an hour. Brandon may be diagnosed with:
autism spectrum disorder

Clara has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She will often sit in strange positions for hours, without apparent awareness of her surroundings. She is experiencing:
catatonia

Rule breaking, theft/deceit, and aggression are symptom clusters in _____ disorder.
conduct

1. Which is a key factor in qualifying a group of symptoms as a psychological disorder?

a.) The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.
b.) The symptoms are seen as unusual in the society in which they occur.
c.) The person feels a need to see a professional counselor or therapist.
d.) The person responds to unpleasant life events with maladaptive rather than adaptive behaviors.

a.) The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.

2. What occurs when a medical model is applied to the study and treatment of psychological disorders?

a.) Individuals live in treatment centers for the rest of their lives.
b.) Individuals are assessed, diagnosed, and treated by a clinician.
c.) Individuals are punished, mistreated, and shunned from society.
d.) Individuals are feared and ridiculed by the medical community.

b.) Individuals are assessed, diagnosed, and treated by a clinician.

3. Valerie has enough symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that she could be appropriately diagnosed with that condition by a competent professional. Which would be the MOST appropriate statement about Valerie?

a.) “Valerie is a person with ADHD.”
b.) “Valerie is crazy.”
c.) “Valerie is one of those ADHDs.”
d.) “Valerie is ADHD.”

a.) “Valerie is a person with ADHD.”

4. What is it that people with agoraphobia fear?

a.) having a panic attack in public places
b.) meeting people in public places
c.) being seen by others in public places
d.) falling down in public places

a.) having a panic attack in public places

5. What is a common complication of panic disorder?

a.) social phobia
b.) agoraphobia
c.) generalized anxiety disorder
d.) claustrophobia

b.) agoraphobia

6. Bob constantly feels nervous, describing his situation as a “low hum of anxiety,” with no particular trigger. Because of this, he feels restless, is unable to sleep, and can’t concentrate. With which disorder is Bob MOST likely to be diagnosed?

a.) social anxiety disorder
b.) generalized anxiety disorder
c.) schizophrenia
d.) depression

b.) generalized anxiety disorder

7. Melanie has become increasingly preoccupied with worry about all kinds of things, ranging from whether she left her oven on to terrorism to how it might look if she trips in the grocery store, the last of which eventually causes her to avoid all stores in general. She tends to engage in a variety of behaviors that she describes as “superstitious,” including making sure she always locks her door exactly five times when she leaves her house. She also has trouble sleeping and concentrating and is very irritable. What type of disorder best identifies Melanie’s symptoms?

a.) panic disorder
b.) obsessive-compulsive disorder
c.) phobic disorder
d.) generalized anxiety disorder

b.) obsessive-compulsive disorder

8. Each day, Wayne felt he had to lock and unlock his door 11 times before he left his house. Wayne could not leave without doing this ritual because of his fear that for the rest of the day he would repeatedly think about his door being unlocked. With which disorder does it sound like Wayne would be MOST appropriately diagnosed?

a.) agoraphobia
b.) generalized anxiety disorder
c.) obsessive-compulsive disorder
d.) claustrophobia

c.) obsessive-compulsive disorder

9. According to studies conducted in 2005 and 2010, approximately _____ percent of adults in the United States reported experiencing obsessions or compulsions at some point in their lives, but only _____ percent of them went on to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

a.) 65; 4
b.) 34; 8
c.) 40; 5
d.) 28; 2

d.) 28; 2

10. _____ disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the event to mind.

a.) Chronic stress
b.) Posttraumatic stress
c.) Adjustment
d.) Acute stress

b.) Posttraumatic stress

11. An unusually small-sized _____ may be an indicator of a susceptibility to PTSD.

a.) hippocampus
b.) caudate nucleus
c.) hypothalamus
d.) amygdala

a.) hippocampus

12. What did the studies that investigated the hippocampal volume of Vietnam veterans and their identical twins find?

a.) increased hippocampal volume for war veterans with PTSD but not their twin
b.) increased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin
c.) decreased hippocampal volume for war veterans with PTSD but not their twin
d.) decreased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin

d.) decreased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin

13. Peter has been experiencing symptoms of depression for a long time. Upon visiting his medical doctor for a check-up, Peter admitted that he had been feeling depressed for more than 3 years, although he had never dealt with it. He has a variety of symptoms (his doctor counted at least five), and reports that most of the time he is barely able to function. His employer has been patient and understanding with the times when Peter has been unable to work, but Peter reports that he is now in serious danger of losing his job. Peter is MOST likely to be diagnosed with _____ disorder.

a.) bipolar
b.) rapid cycling
c.) seasonal affective
d.) major depressive

d.) major depressive

14. Janet has felt depressed for over 3 weeks. She has trouble sleeping and is not interested in food, socializing, sex, or work. Often, she’s overcome by her feelings of worthlessness and thinks about suicide. What condition is Janet MOST likely experiencing?

a.) postpartum depression
b.) bipolar disorder
c.) seasonal affective disorder
d.) major depressive disorder

d.) major depressive disorder

15. Individuals with mood disorders who live with families with high levels of _____ are more likely to experience a relapse of symptoms.

a.) emotional avoidance
b.) emotional sensitivity
c.) suppressed emotion
d.) expressed emotion

d.) expressed emotion

16. Clara has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She will often sit in strange positions for hours, without any apparent awareness of her surroundings. What symptom is she experiencing?

a.) delusion
b.) catatonic behavior
c.) impoverished speech
d.) hallucination

b.) catatonic behavior

19. _____ is a condition that begins in early childhood and is marked by persistent communication deficits and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.

a.) Autism Spectrum Disorder
b.) Childhood disintegrative disorder
c.) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
d.) Conduct disorder

a.) Autism Spectrum Disorder

17. When is the first episode of schizophrenia MOST likely to occur?

a.) during middle to late adulthood
b.) during early or middle childhood
c.) during infancy
d.) during late adolescence or early adulthood

d.) during late adolescence or early adulthood

20. In one theory of Autism Spectrum Disorder, the condition is described as a combination of deficits in _____ and superior abilities in _____.

a.) emoting; intellectualizing
b.) rationalizing; realizing
c.) empathizing; systematizing
d.) verifying; collaborating

c.) empathizing; systematizing

18. There appears to be a relationship between _____ and the progression of schizophrenia.

a.) biological changes in the brain such as a dramatic loss of gray matter
b.) smoking
c.) positive environmental influences such as experiencing a loving, supportive childhood
d.) major depressive episodes

a.) biological changes in the brain such as a dramatic loss of gray matter

21. Regarding the chronic nature of Autism Spectrum Disorder, one recent study conducted by Helt and colleagues (2008) found that as many as _____ percent of children diagnosed with ASD ultimately lose their diagnosis over time.

a.) 10
b.) 25
c.) 40
d.) 5

b.) 25

22. The DSM defines a child as suffering from conduct disorder when (s)he meets at least 3 of a list of 15 symptoms. As a result, there are approximately _____ different combinations of symptoms that could lead to this diagnosis.

a.) 54,000
b.) 21,000
c.) 32,000
d.) 43,000

c.) 32,000

23. Josh is a 16-year-old male who was recently arrested for shoplifting. As the police questioned him, he was belligerent and disrespectful, and they learned that he also killed a neighbor’s cat. His parents report that they have lost all ability to manage his frequent aggressive, angry outbursts. Josh is MOST likely to be diagnosed with:

a.) conduct disorder.
b.) ADHD.
c.) depression.
d.) Autism Spectrum Disorder

a.) conduct disorder.

24. Which three problem areas BEST summarize the issues and symptoms of conduct disorder?

a.) hostility, mistrust, and paranoia
b.) deception, irrationality, and depression
c.) inattention, disorganization, and hyperactivity
d. ) anger, impulsivity, and rule-breaking

d. ) anger, impulsivity, and rule-breaking

25. What are the three main categories of personality disorders in the DSM-5?

a.) anxious/inhibited, cognitive/smart, and dramatic/erratic
b.) odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and dramatic/erratic
c.) odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and irrational/illogical
d.) dramatic/erratic, irrational/illogical, and odd/eccentric

b.) odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and dramatic/erratic

26. What causes controversy regarding the classification of personality disorders in the DSM-5?

a.) It is too expensive to diagnose personality disorders.
b.) People often like individuals with many of the personality disorders.
c.) Personality disorders may be extreme values of traits on the Big Five.
d.) There are foolproof diagnostic measures for personality disorders.

c.) Personality disorders may be extreme values of traits on the Big Five.

27. Due to decreased levels of activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, psychopaths appear to be less sensitive to _____ than noncriminals.

a.) rational thought
b.) fear
c.) hypnosis
d.) social norms

b.) fear

28. Which statement about suicidal behavior is TRUE?

a.) More women die by suicide, and they are also more likely to have nonfatal attempts.
b.) More women die by suicide, but men have more nonfatal attempts.
c.) More men die by suicide, but women have more nonfatal attempts.
d.) More men die by suicide, and they are also more likely to have nonfatal attempts.

c.) More men die by suicide, but women have more nonfatal attempts.

29. Morgan frequently cuts herself with a paring knife or makes severe scratches on her arms and legs with the end of a paper clip when she is upset. She has no real desire to die, but finds it relieves a sense of tension and anxiety. Some of her injuries have been severe and required medical attention. Her behavior is BEST referred to as:

a.) a suicide attempt.
b.) manipulation.
c.) pre-suicidal.
d.) nonsuicidal self-injury.

d.) nonsuicidal self-injury.

30. Which statement about nonsuicidal self-injury is TRUE?

a.) It is considered pathological by all societies and cultures.
b.) It is more common in females than males.
c.) Some people use this behavior to reduce the intensity of negative affect.
d.) The rates of this behavior peek during mid-life

c.) Some people use this behavior to reduce the intensity of negative affect.

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