PSY 311 – CH. 9 – 13 Quzzes (DYRI?, Module & Text)

________ refers to the loosening of normal behavioral constraints when people are in a crowd, leading to increases in impulsive and deviant acts.
Deindividuation

Although social groups vary tremendously (e.g., families, sororities, sports teams, religious congregations), they are all alike in that
actions are guided by norms.

Both social facilitation and social loafing are examples of the influence that the presence of others has on our behaviors. These phenomena differ, however, in that presence of others ________ in social facilitation situations and ________ in social loafing situations.
increases arousal; decreases arousal

Deutsch and Krauss (1960, 1962) found that cooperation between adversaries is most likely to occur when
neither side is able to make a threat.

Group discussion often pushes people’s initial individual decisions to the extreme, yielding group polarization. According to the persuasive arguments interpretation, this is because
others bring up perspectives or issues that the individual hadn’t considered.

In order to avoid the phenomenon of groupthink, the leader of a group should
form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.

When it comes to social dilemmas such as the “prisoner’s dilemma” game, the tit-for-tat strategy
is a means of increasing cooperation.

Why do group members tend to be homogeneous?
because many groups attract people who are similar and groups tend to operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members.

With regard to leadership, most social psychologists would agree that
good leadership is a function of the situation and personal characteristics.

A social dilemma is defined as a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will ________ if ________.
have harmful effects on everyone; chosen by most people

A group of five students are sharing a house. All of the students like to take long, hot showers in the morning, but when they do, there is not enough hot water for their housemates. Which of the following will be least successful in getting the students to take shorter showers?
Negotiate hot water use online via an instant messenger.

A high level of group cohesiveness would be least beneficial to which of the following groups?
members of a political campaign team developing a strategy

Adam is part of a group organized to increase blood donations in a local community. As a social psychologist, Adam has a relevant background in persuasion tactics, but his group members fail to realize the important contributions he could make. This scenario is an example of
process loss.

For Halloween, Jeff wears a sheet and goes to a party as a ghost. How is this costume likely to influence his behavior? He will
feel less personally accountable for his behavior.

Group or team learning activities are becoming more common in the university setting. That is, professors often assign students to work in groups. Given what you know about social loafing, what advice would you give a professor who is considering using group learning activities?
For simple assignments, the groups will likely do worse than you would expect from individuals.

In describing his experiences during decision making that preceded the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy’s adviser, Arthur Schlesinger, reported that although he was opposed to the invasion, he didn’t speak out because “others would regard it as presumptuous of him, a college professor, to take issue with august heads of government institutions.” This example best reflects ________ as a symptom of groupthink.
self-censorship in the interest of avoiding criticism

In order to predict whether the presence of others will help or hinder performance, one needs two pieces of information: whether ________ and whether ________.
individual performance can be evaluated; the task is simple or complex

Nan had pretty much made up her mind before a group discussion. During the discussion, however, she thinks to herself, “I think I’ll hang back and see how the others feel about it. I don’t want them to think I’m nuts or anything.” Nan’s thoughts best reflect the ________ interpretation of group polarization.
social comparison

Sometimes famous performers have horrible final rehearsals in empty auditoriums prior to a big performance, yet they end up having wonderful performances in front of audiences. Why would the presence of others increase performance on a well-rehearsed task, such as musical performance?
They are aroused.

The study group you belong to is discussing class materials for the upcoming exam. Based on research presented in your text about information sharing, which type of material would group members be most likely to focus on?
facts that all group members know

Under certain conditions, people will choose the cooperative option when playing the “prisoner’s dilemma” game. For example, when a player ________, that player will be more likely to play cooperatively.
expects to interact with his or her partner in the future

Which person is least likely to be in a group with the other three?
Lauren: age twenty-five, single, liberal waitress

“We will not talk about other members behind their backs, and we will never divulge one another’s secrets to anyone, inside or outside this group.” The preceding statement reflects
a group norm.

According to your textbook, all of the following are true with respect to women and leadership except
women are even harsher toward other women who act counter to the feminine role than men are.

Group decision-making can be improved and the problems of process loss avoided if groups make sure to do all of the following except
focus on seeking consensus between group members.

In order to avoid the phenomenon of groupthink, the leader of a group should
form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.

Researchers such as Baumeister and Leary (1995) argue that the need to belong to groups is present in all societies because
group membership has conferred evolutionary advantages to humans.

Why do group members tend to be homogeneous?
because many groups attract people who are similar and groups tend to operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members.

Shelley was initially moderately in favor of a proposal to build a city bike path. At a meeting, she learns that not only will the path provide recreational opportunities and allow for some decrease in traffic, but that in towns with paths, the crime rate tends to go down and businesses along the path do better. She is now strongly in favor of the proposal. The theory that best explains her change of opinion is the ________ theory.
persuasive arguments

According to social-psychological reasoning, a large “student body” is not a social group because
each student cannot possibly interact with all other students.

Why are groups homogeneous (alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions)?
People who are already similar to each tend to join the same group. & Groups encourage similarity in their members.

Group cohesiveness is best defined as
qualities that bind members together and promote liking between members.

You are trying to decide whether to take a test in a lecture hall where you will be surrounded by lots of other people or in a room by yourself. Assuming that you have studied for the test and know the material, you should take the test in the because it will result in
classroom, social facilitation

The tendency to engage in social loafing is stronger in _____ than _____; it is also stronger in _____ than _____.
men, women; Western cultures, Asian cultures

On his way back from class, Matt encounters an angry mob ready to storm the dining hall to demand better food. Matt likes the food as it is and wants to stop the mob. What would be the most effective solution?
Finding a friend in the group, calling out her name,
and talking to her loudly about an upcoming test.

Four psychology students working on a group project together are trying to figure out how they should avoid groupthink when making decisions about their project. Which of these ideas would be the least helpful?
Bonding by going to see a movie together before start- ing the project.

Bill and Pam, a married couple, are buying a house and have narrowed their choice down to two options. Bill re- members that one house had a beautiful kitchen; Pam, however, remembers that there were roaches in the broom closet. By sharing this information with each other, Pam
and Bill are using ____ to avoid ____.
transactive memory, process loss

Which of the following is least likely to lead to process loss in a group?
The group members have never met before.

Which of the following is true about research on leadership?
Female leaders are more likely than male leaders to be put in precarious, high-risk positions where it is difficult to succeed.

When is communication most effective for resolving conflict?
When a mediator is used.

According to an evolutionary approach to love, why do women prefer men with resources, whereas men prefer women who are attractive?
Resources signal competence in men; attractiveness signals reproductive fitness in women.

Evolutionarily speaking, one reason that people prefer the familiar over that which is unfamiliar is that
unfamiliar things can be potentially dangerous.

In romantic relationships, when would similarity with your partner be the least important?
if you are just looking for a “fling”

In their relationship, Marc and Nora both perceive that Marc has been paying more than his fair share of costs and that Nora is receiving more than her fair share of benefits. According to equity theory,
both should feel uncomfortable with the situation, but Marc should feel more uncomfortable than Nora.

Melanie doesn’t find it easy to trust other people and says that she doesn’t “need anybody.” In all likelihood, Melanie’s ________ attachment style can be traced to a caregiver who ________.
avoidant; was aloof and distant

According to research conducted by Akert (1998), someone ________ would suffer the most after the dissolution of his or her romantic relationship.
who was dumped

Research suggests that there is ________ between babies and adults, men and women, and people from several cultures as to what is considered physically attractive.
amazing consistency

Social exchange theory posits that relationship satisfaction depends on our perceptions of the rewards and costs associated with the relationship, what kind of relationship we believe we deserve, and whether
we believe that a relationship with someone else would be better.

As the authors of your text explain, love is experienced differently in different cultures. For instance the Japanese term, amae, has no English equivalent, but can best be described as
being totally indulged and cared for by your partner.

Often, toward the beginning of romantic relationships, we experience ________, whereas after the relationship has continued for a number of years, we experience ________.
passionate love; companionate love

Carolyn believes that she is worthy and well liked. According to attachment theorists, what is the most likely reason for this? Carolyn
had a secure attachment with her mother.

Cliff believes that his relationship with Kristi provides as many rewards and as few costs as he expects in a relationship. Cliff considers himself fortunate, because he does not believe that he can get nearly as good an outcome with anyone else. Cliff can be described as having a ________ comparison level and a ________ comparison level for alternatives.
high; low

In an experiment, Curtis and Miller (1986) assigned participants at random to have a conversation. One member of each pair was told that the other person liked him or her. Participants provided this information actually behaved in more likable ways, and their partners, too, behaved in pleasant ways. Based on the information presented in the text, which of the following could explain their behavior and reciprocal liking?
the self-fulfilling prophecy

In their relationship, Marc and Nora both perceive that Marc has been paying more than his fair share of costs and that Nora is receiving more than her fair share of benefits. According to equity theory,
both should feel uncomfortable with the situation, but Marc should feel more uncomfortable than Nora.

John and Patricia are miserable in their relationship. If John were to use a tactic that is both destructive and passive, he would
ignore Patricia or spend less time with her, but remain loyal, hoping things will improve.

Keep in mind Rusbult’s (1983) social exchange approach to relationships. Who is more likely to realize that relationships involve costs as well as rewards?
Jessica, who has been dating David for a relatively long time

Recall that recent research finds that people rating the physical attractiveness of faces most prefer faces that resemble their own. This finding suggests that ________ is critically important in physical attraction.
familiarity

Research has found that there is agreement across cultures concerning what constitutes an attractive face; that infants prefer photographs of attractive faces to unattractive ones and that they prefer the same faces that adults do; and that statistically average faces tend to be seen as attractive. These findings provide support for a(n) ________ interpretation of the importance of physical attractiveness.
evolutionary

Roger’s attachment style is secure and Bob’s attachment style is secure. Based on the research presented in your text, what could you infer about their relationship?
They are satisfied and committed to the relationship.

When Festinger and his colleagues studied friendship patterns among married couples in an apartment complex at MIT, they found that people who lived at the foot of the stairs or near mailboxes had more friends on upper floors than did other people who lived on the first floor. This illustrates the power of ________ to influence friendship patterns.
functional distance

Which of the following adages most directly contradicts research findings on the propinquity effect?
Familiarity breeds contempt.

Which of the following couples is most likely to experience arousal, ecstasy, and intense longing when the other is away?
Ida (age seventy-six) and George (age eighty-three), who were smitten with each other at recent community dance

You are strongly attracted to Mario, and you very much want him to like you, too, but you’re afraid that if you open your mouth, he won’t like you. If you’re too nervous to interact with Mario, you can take advantage of the mere exposure effect and
frequent the same coffee shop that he goes to, making sure that he sees you every day.

You are very sociable and outgoing; at a holiday party, you approach a quiet young woman standing alone in the corner. To break the ice, you discuss a number of “safe” topics: what the winter will be like, what new television shows are worth watching, and what books you’ve been reading lately. You both see eye-to-eye on a lot. After the conversation, you like the young woman. Based on a large number of social-psychological experiments, why is that so?
We tend to be attracted to people who hold similar attitudes.

According to an evolutionary approach to love, why do women prefer men with resources, whereas men prefer women who are attractive?
Resources signal competence in men; attractiveness signals reproductive fitness in women.

According to research by Akert (1998), which of the people below would most want to stay friends with an ex-partner after a relationship breakup?
Angela, who broke it off with Scott

According to research conducted by Akert (1998), someone ________ would suffer the most after the dissolution of his or her romantic relationship.
who was dumped

Carla is involved in a romantic relationship with Jack. Her costs of the relationship are relatively low and her rewards are very high with this relationship. However, Carla has recently met Ted, and she believes that he could offer her a relationship with even higher rewards than Jack. According to social exchange theory, Carla is likely to
break up with Jack in favor of the relationship with Ted.

In romantic relationships, when would similarity with your partner be the least important?
if you are just looking for a “fling”

Ramona cares deeply about Raül, but does not feel any passion for him. Raül, on the other hand, has feelings of great longing accompanied by physical arousal whenever she’s near. In this situation, Ramona is feeling ________ love for Raül, whereas Raül, is feeling ________ love for Ramona.
companionate; passionate

Sam has his eye on Julie and wants her to like him. According to research in social psychology, which of the following is least likely to work? He should
emphasize that they have complementary personali- ties; after all, “opposites attract.”

Rachel is considered physically attractive by her Ameri- can classmates because of her large eyes and small nose— “baby face” characteristics. In another culture, she would most likely be considered
attractive because people’s perceptions of “baby face”
attractiveness are similar across cultures.

Which of the following is false?
People in communal relationships tend to keep track
of who is contributing what to the relationship.

Kate and Jamie are dating. According to the investment model of close relationships, which of the following is least likely to influence their commitment to the relationship?
Their perception that what they are putting into the relationship is roughly the same as what they are get- ting out of it

_____ involves intense longing for another person, accompanied by physiological arousal, whereas ____ is the intimacy and affection we feel without
arousal.
passionate love, companionate love

Which of the following statements regarding attachment style is true?
The attachment style that adults display is shaped by their partner’s behavior and the type of relationship they’ve created as a couple.

Matthew and Eric have been friends since the begin- ning of the school year. According to equity theory, their friendship will suffer if
Eric is much more likely to help Matthew out when he
needs it than Matthew is to help Eric.

Elliot worries that his girlfriend doesn’t really love him and smothers her with attention. According to attachment theory, Elliot probably has a(n) _____ attachment style, because when he was an infant, his caregivers were _____.
anxious-ambivalent, inconsistent and overbearing

You are considering breaking up with your significant other after 1 month of being a couple. While the relationship gives you lots of rewards and has few costs, you have recently met someone new whom you anticipate will give you even more rewards for even fewer costs. Your dilemma stems from the fact that you have a _____ and a _____ .
high satisfaction level, high comparison level for
alternatives

Research on the ability of dating Web sites to effectively match up mates using mathematical compatibility analyses indicates that
the Web sites are no better at producing happy rela-
tionships than are more old-fashioned ways of meeting
a dating partner, like being set up by friends.

________ refers to any act that someone performs in order to benefit another person.
Prosocial behavior

A(n) ________ is a group with which individuals identify and of which they feel they are members.
in-group

According to the bystander effect (Latané & Darley, 1970), if you just witnessed a mugging, you will be most likely to call for help if you
are the sole witness.

Helping in exchange relationships is based on ________, whereas helping in communal relationships is based on ________.
reciprocity; need

In explaining the process by which kin selection works to encourage altruism, evolutionary psychologists would argue that
over millennia, genes of those who follow the “biological importance” rule will survive.

Pluralistic ignorance is most likely to discourage intervention in an emergency when
the situation is ambiguous.

The “feel good, do good” effect in studies of prosocial behavior refers to the idea that
people in a good mood are more likely to help.

The basic tenet of ________ is that when we feel empathy for another person’s plight, we will help that person regardless of what we may stand to gain.
the empathy-altruism hypothesis

Which of the following is not one of the three reasons why being in a good mood would make someone more likely to help another person?
Being in a good mood increases empathy.

In order to best predict whether people will help another person, it is best to know something about ________ and ________.
their personality; the particular situation in question

A giant tornado is bearing down on Dorothy’s farmhouse. She only has time to help one other resident. Based on research regarding kin selection, whom will Dorothy take with her to the storm cellar?
her sister, Glenda

A woman has just been in a car accident and needs someone to get her out of her car. A man has AIDS and needs someone to take him to the hospital for ongoing treatments. According to the research on gender differences in prosocial behavior, which of the following is most likely to be true?
John is more likely to help the woman; Karen is more likely to help the man.

According to Latané and Darley (1970), a number of things must occur before witnesses decide to intervene in an emergency situation. According to this stage model, diffusion of responsibility is most likely to affect witnesses’
sense of obligation to intervene.

Although George wants to help a stranded motorist he passed on the freeway, he passes by because he knows it would take too much time out of his busy schedule. What theory offers the best explanation as to why George did not help?
social exchange

Even if it is clear that a person needs help, that you are the person responsible to help, and that you know how to help, you might still decide not to help. Reasons that people do not help in such cases include all of the following except
the situation isn’t an emergency, and the Latané and Darley model isn’t applicable.

Every morning at the bus stop, Carlos encounters an old woman begging for change. She is clearly hungry and alone. Because Carlos feels very bad for this woman and can “feel her pain,” he makes a point of giving her some change each morning that he sees her. Which theoretical approach best explains Carlos’s behavior?
the empathy-altruism hypothesis

If the urban overload hypothesis (Milgram, 1970) is true, ________ to help a fallen pedestrian on the streets of New York City because ________.
Ellen would not be likely; she tries to keep to herself amid all the stimulation

If you are in an emergency situation and need help, which of the following statements to a bystander is most likely to get you the help you need?
“You in the red sweater-call 911!”

In the grocery store one evening, Yolanda is in a good mood after earning a promotion at work, but Trudy is feeling quite guilty for stealing office supplies from work. When another shopper collapses on the ground unconscious, Yolanda would be likely to help according to the ________, while Trudy would be likely to help according to the ________.
feel good, do good effect; feel bad, do good effect

Pluralistic ignorance is most likely to discourage intervention in an emergency when
the situation is ambiguous.

Sarah is excellent at the backstroke, and she is preparing for an important swimming competition. She has just been asked to help somebody improve on the backstroke. Based on the tenets of self-esteem maintenance theory, she will be most likely to help
Katherine, a new team member.

When viewing a commercial for a local charity, who would be the most likely to later contribute to the charity?
Sarah, who has lived in the community for her entire life

Which of the following is the best example of altruistic behavior?
Robert anonymously donates a kidney to a twenty-year-old accident victim he will never meet.

You know that Susan is a very helpful person. She spends many hours each week volunteering at a local homeless shelter, she donates a lot of money to charities, and she is always the first person to volunteer to organize something when your group of friends wants to get together. According to the research on the altruistic personality, you ________ that Susan would help carry a neighbor’s groceries if the situation arose because ________.
cannot be sure; personality is not necessarily the most reliable predictor of prosocial behavior

Jim dives into the water to help his drowning sister; Ivan dives into the water to help a total stranger because he wanted to impress his new girlfriend and is a trained lifeguard. Jim’s motive to help is best explained by ________, while Ivan’s motive to help is best explained by ________.
evolutionary theory; social exchange theory

Joseph was on the subway when he noticed a man lying slumped over on the seat. Joseph looked around at the other passengers, who seemed calm and unconcerned. Joseph concluded that the man was probably okay. However, the other passengers may have been looking around at Joseph, to see how he reacted. This would be an example of
pluralistic ignorance.

Juanita sees a crowd of people gathered around a man lying on the ground. She thinks about whether to call an ambulance, but then reasons that somebody else has probably already done so. This is an example of
diffusion of responsibility.

One consequence of living by the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” is that if you help those in need, they might return the favor someday. This idea is best represented by
the norm of reciprocity.

Social exchange theory would have the most trouble explaining which of the following helping situations?
Theo calmly walks into heavy traffic to rescue a stranger who collapsed in the crosswalk.

When other bystanders are present, people are less likely to interpret an event as an emergency. ________ best explains why this is so.
Informational social influence

Which of the following is not a way in which evolutionary theory explains prosocial behavior?
social exchange

Amy is walking across campus and sees someone on her hands and knees looking for a ring that slipped off her finger. Which of the following is false according to the empathy-altruism hypothesis? Amy
feels empathy toward the person, but she doesn’t think she has much to gain by helping, so she decides not to help the person look for the ring.

Which of the following is not a reason why being in a good mood tends to increase prosocial behavior?
Good moods make us pay more attention to social
norms, so we will be more aware of the altruism norm.

Frank has recently graduated from college and moved from New York City back to the small town in Ohio where he grew up. He now finds that he is much more inclined to engage in prosocial behavior. What is the most likely reason for this change?
The change in his immediate surroundings changed his likelihood of helping.

Luke listened to a lecture in his history class that he found very confusing, but at the end of the class when the pro- fessor asked whether there was anything students didn’t understand, Luke didn’t raise his hand. Because no other hands were raised, Luke assumed that other students had understood the material and that he just didn’t pay enough attention. In fact, many students hadn’t understood the material and were in the same situation as Luke. This is an example of
pluralistic ignorance.

Research on prosocial behavior finds that religious people
actually help more than nonreligious people, but
only if it makes them look good to themselves or to
others.

Which of the following is most true?
Listening to song lyrics with prosocial lyrics makes
people more helpful.

Meghan lives in a single room in a college dormitory. Late one night, she hears a scream coming from just outside her dorm. She is pretty sure that the person needs help because the person yelled, “Help me! I think I broke my leg!” Meghan goes back to sleep, only to find out the next day that the person was on the ground for 45 minutes before someone helped. Which of the following best explains why Meghan didn’t help?
A diffusion of responsibility.Which of the following is true about prosocial behavior?

Which of the following is true about prosocial behavior?
How often people have moved from one place to an-
other influences how helpful they are.

Which of the following is not true about prosocial behavior?
Having an altruistic personality is a strong predictor of helping behavior.

________ aggression is an act that stems from feelings of anger, and that is aimed at inflicting pain.
Hostile

________ occurs when a person is thwarted on the way to an expected goal or gratification.
Frustration

Males tend to be more violent in their teens and twenties than later in life. Based on evolutionary theory (as discussed by the authors of your text), why would this be true?
These are peak reproductive years.

Watching media violence a single time is ________ to cause nonaggressive children to become violent, but long-term exposure seems to ________ aggression in most children.
unlikely; increase

Well-controlled laboratory experiments and field studies (e.g., McDonald, Zanna, & Fong, 1996) have revealed that alcohol consumption contributes to aggression by
reducing social inhibitions and restraints.

According to social-psychological research (e.g., Bower & Hilgard, 1981), what are the “ideal conditions” for punishment to be an effective deterrent to violence? Punishment must be
swift and certain.

Empathy training activities as conducted by researchers such as Richardson and colleagues (1994) involve
teaching children to take another’s perspective.

Hostile aggression differs from instrumental aggression in that instrumental aggression
involves inflicting pain as a means to an end.

One determinant of whether we will respond aggressively when provoked is whether
we perceive the provocation as intentional.

Research on the effects of aggressive stimuli shows that
the presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.

A little girl watches a television cartoon in which a woman yanks a child by the hair and screams at her. After seeing the cartoon, the little girl acts out this same interaction with her doll. This is an example of
social learning.

A prison guard has to transport (by bus) four prisoners convicted of violent crimes. Based on information from your text, who would be most likely to cause the guard problems and behave aggressively?
Bold Bob, who is squeezed next to the luggage and is next to the smelly bathroom

According to cognitive dissonance theorists, when people attempt to vent their aggressive impulses by harming another person, they are more likely to engage in later acts of aggression because
dissonance is reduced by derogating the victim, increasing the odds of later aggression.

Andrea asks her friends to spread a nasty rumor about her opponent for the office of class president to attempt to damage his reputation in the days before the election. This is an example of
instrumental aggression.

As Dale is walking by Andy, he trips over Andy’s foot, falls to the ground, and hits his face on the side of a table as he is falling. Dale will be most likely to reciprocate by acting violently toward Andy if
Andy intentionally tripped him.

Jim watches a heavy dose of violent TV cop shows. According to research presented in the text, what is one likely outcome of this behavior? Jim will
feel indifferent when he hears a violent argument between his neighbors.

John and Sam get into a fistfight in the middle of a gun shop. The presence of the guns would be an example of
aggressive stimuli.

Kristi has been very frustrated in her search for the perfect apartment that costs next to nothing. According to frustration-aggression theory, what would most likely increase the likelihood that Kristi’s frustration will lead to aggressive behavior?
The perfect apartment burned down the day after she put down a deposit.

Little Neil is frustrated and is threatening to throttle his baby sister. His mother intervenes, and suggests that Neil “get over it” by taking a dozen eggs and smashing them against the tree in the front yard. Neil’s mother appears to be a proponent of ________ as a means of reducing aggression.
catharsis

Opponents of the death penalty for certain violent crimes might use social-psychological data to argue that one reason why the threat of capital punishment doesn’t serve as an effective deterrent to violence is that
the odds are low that a violent criminal will be swiftly apprehended, tried, and convicted.

Which of the following is an example of hostile rather than of instrumental aggression?
A teenager throws eggs at a homeless person.

Your boss is upset at you for being late so often. Assuming you’ve already apologized, if you wanted to assuage your boss’s anger, one good strategy is to
try to evoke empathy in her.

According to evolutionary theory, some psychologists argue that men are programmed to be aggressive. What is their explanation for this claim?
Aggression may help men perpetuate their genes.

During the seventeenth century, when European fur traders arrived, the Iroquois changed from a peace-loving tribe to fierce enemies of their neighbors, the Hurons. This suggests that
economic and social competition can elicit aggression.

Ed is steaming mad and ready to punch the next person he sees. According to the authors of your text, what is the first, best thing he should do to help him resolve his anger effectively?
Take a deep breath and count to ten.

In a classic experiment (Barker, Dembo, & Lewin, 1941) researchers prevented children from playing with attractive toys. Once the children gained access to the toys, they behaved destructively, smashing the toys and throwing them against the wall. These results demonstrate the power of ________ to increase aggression.
frustration

Which of the following is false?
Gender differences exist in aggression, particularly in response to provocation (e.g., an insult.)

Assume that Kyle grew up in the South, where a “culture of honor” predominates. Based on research presented in the text, Kyle would be more likely than a northerner to behave aggressively when
someone insults him.

Recall an experiment in which participants were insulted either before or after they learned that the offender was upset due to a low grade. Participants were more likely to retaliate when the situation was explained to them after the insult. These results support the idea that provocation is less likely to result in an aggressive response when
we learn of mitigating circumstance ahead of time.

Shortly after Mary and Robert were married, he became somewhat aggressive to other men who showed an interest in his wife, and made claims like, “Anyone who lays a hand on my woman has to go through me first.” Such claims and aggression are explained by evolutionary theory as
sexual jealousy.

_____ aggression stems from feelings of anger and is
aimed at inflicting pain, whereas _____ as a means to some goal other than pain.
hostile, instrumental

Which of the following stated gender differences in aggression is false?
Because violence is so rare in women, female suicide bombers are much crazier than males who carry out these attacks..

From a social-psychological perspective,which of the following is not a limitation of evolutionary theories of aggression?
They fail to account for men’s sexual jealousy.

Which of the following men is most likely to act aggressively toward someone who insults him?
Randy, who grew up in Louisiana.

Under which of the following conditions is John least likely to be aggressive?
He likes to look at nonviolent pornography.

Which of the following statements does not reflect the research on media violence and young children’s behavior?
Television advertising works better when it is shown
during violent shows than nonviolent shows.

Jim has been convicted of assault and offers many reasons for his behavior. Which of the following of Jim’s arguments would a social psychologist find the least convincing (based upon research on aggression)?
“I grew up in a very cold climate, in Minnesota.”

Tiffany is angry at Whitney for forgetting her birthday. To defuse her anger, Tiffany should
write about her feelings privately for 20 minutes a day
for a few days, to get some perspective.

Tiffany finally decides she is ready to confront Whitney directly. How should she express her anger (assuming she wants to keep the friendship)?
She should explain why she feels upset and hurt, as
calmly as she can, without blame and accusation.

Suppose you want to reduce the chances that your children will act in aggressive ways toward other people. Which of the following is least likely to work?
Encourage them to play sports where they can vent their frustrations on the playing field.

________ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.
Stereotypes

________ posits that increased prejudice and discrimination result from limited resources and consequent intergroup conflict.
Realistic conflict theory

________ refers to the apprehension among minority group members that they might confirm to existing cultural stereotypes.
Stereotype threat

A benevolent sexist would endorse which of the following statements?
“Women should stay home because they are too precious and sweet to waste on the working world.”

Conditions under which contact situations reduce prejudice include
multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and equal status.

One reason why logical arguments often fail to change stereotypes is that they are emotion-based arguments. The other reason is that
attitudes are organized such that schema-consistent information is given more attention.

Research on the illusory correlation indicates that a correlation is found between minority status and negative events because minority status is
distinctive.

Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they
simplify a complex social world.

Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they
are overgeneralized to members of a group.

The tendency to make a dispositional attribution about an entire group of people is called the
ultimate attribution error.

A cashier at the store assumes that because his next customer is elderly, she will take a long time to pay. The cashier is using his stereotypes about the elderly and not taking the time or energy to carefully consider each customer in his line as an individual. His use of stereotypes best exemplifies Allport’s idea of
the law of least effort.

A person who believes in a just world would likely believe that a date-rape victim should
have known her date better.

According to the authors of your text, it is primarily the ________ aspect of prejudiced attitudes that make them relatively impervious to rational or logical arguments.
emotional

Alan just met Tina who is from a small rural town in the South. Alan believes that people from the South are narrow-minded, conservatively religious, and prudish. Tina, however, is none of these. What will Alan think?
Tina is an exception to his stereotype about southerners.

Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. She promises them that she will take them to a funny movie if they will work together to clean their playroom in under thirty minutes. Which of the preconditions for reducing conflict does this illustrate?
mutual interdependence and a common goal

From a social cognitive perspective, the first step toward prejudice is
the categorization of people into groups.

If Julie identifies herself as a woman, a mother, and a teacher, who would not be another in-group member for her?
Bill, an accountant

In the past, journalists would routinely report the race of an alleged criminal when he or she was black, but not when he or she was white. This media practice was likely to confirm in some readers’ minds the tendency of African Americans to commit criminal behavior. This phenomenon illustrates
an illusory correlation.

Juliet is Jewish, and is going on a date with a Catholic. “Just don’t bring up abortion-you know all Catholics are pro-life,” cautions her sister. Juliet’s sister is exhibiting the bias known as
out-group homogeneity.

Lucas reads an article in the newspaper about a man recently arrested for polygamy. “Yuck! That lifestyle disgusts me!” Lucas says with disdain. Lucas is expressing his ________ about polygamy.
prejudice

Researchers discovered that many ministers who supported desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas did not use their pulpits to air their (unpopular) views for fear of losing contributions and church members. This is a real world example of the power of ________ to exacerbate prejudice and discrimination.
normative conformity

Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than men. These are examples of Shane’s ________ women.
stereotypes about

The major difference between the scapegoat theory of prejudice and the realistic conflict theory of prejudice is that the scapegoat theory is applicable when
in-group members target powerless, disliked victims.

Tina’s dad is a benevolent sexist. He’s most likely to approve of which of the following as Tina’s choice of major?
Art. He wants her to continue making the world beautiful.

Which of the following is an example of discrimination?
Laura scoots over a few feet when an African American sits next to her in a waiting room.

Which of the following people is most likely to experience stereotype threats?
an African-American student who believes that he is about to take a test that measures intellectual ability

Cialdini and his colleagues (1976) counted the number of college insignia T-shirts worn by university students on the Monday after their teams played football. These researchers found that students were more likely to wear such shirts after victories than after losses. These findings suggest that
in-group identification is a source pride and self-esteem.

Even non-prejudiced participants in research by Devine (1989) can recognize such negative stereotypes as “Jews are materialistic” or “African Americans are hostile.” Still, non-prejudiced participants do not endorse those stereotypes. This is because the activation of stereotypes is ________, whereas the refutation of stereotypes is ________.
automatic; controlled

Researchers (Kunda & Oleson, 1997) presented people with one or two examples that countered people’s strongly held stereotypes and found that some people actually strengthened their belief in the stereotype when confronted with such disconfirmations. According to the researchers, this occurred because the people
were motivated by the counterexamples to find even more reasons why their belief held.

Suppose that Herman is prejudiced toward members of Group A. Increasing Herman’s contact with Group A is most likely to reduce his prejudice if
he volunteers to help build a house for Habitat for Humanity, and several of his coworkers are members of Group A. At the end of the day, he and all the other workers often go out to dinner together.

According to realistic conflict theory, prejudice and discrimination are likely to increase when
there is competition over jobs in a country.

Rebecca is covering her college’s football game against its archrival for the school newspaper. At the game, she in- terviews several students from her college but decides she only needs to interview one or two students from the rival school to understand the general opinion of students at that school. Rebecca is demonstrating
a perception of out-group homogeneity.

Because the law has made most forms of direct prejudice and discrimination in the United States illegal, the expression of prejudice
has not changed.

Suppose you’re a bartender and observe occasional fights at your establishment. Although you don’t know very many people with visible tattoos, it seems to you that people with tattoos are more likely to get into fights than people without tattoos. But you are wrong; people with visible tattoos have not been more likely to get into fights. Based on the research discussed in this chapter, your faulty memory is most likely due to
illusory correlation.

According to social psychological research, racism in America today
has decreased more at the controlled level than at the
automatic level.

At a party, Sam makes negative comments about gays and lesbians. According to research in social psychology, which of the following is least likely to explain Sam’s behavior?
Sam had high self-esteem and felt very secure about his own sexuality.

According to social psychological research, which of the following is least likely to prevent Sam from making similar negative comments about gays and lesbians in the future?
Sam finds out that a member of a rival fraternity is gay.

Melissa, a high school senior, doesn’t get into the col- lege she wants to attend. She blames this on affirmative action and starts to act aggressively toward the minority students at her school. Melissa’s aggression can best be explained by
scapegoating.

Which of the following is least true about race and stereo- typing, from a social psychological perspective?
Evolutionary theory holds that different human races
have different genetic makeups that cause them to
adopt different social behaviors.

Increasing contact between groups will reduce prejudice if all of the following conditions are met except one. Which one?
Higher status of the minority group

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