Prostate Cancer

Abstract Prostate Cancer is a disease in which there is an uncontrolled growth of cells that lines the ducts of the prostate gland. The abnormal cells can spread throughout the prostate and nearby organs, such as the seminal vesicles. If not caught early they can spread (metastasized) to other organs of the body through the lymph or blood stream. (“… Treatment… ” 13) Prostate Cancer can be like a silent killer. Some may show signs and symptoms of this disease while others may not.

Some symptoms may include frequent urination, blood in the urine or semen, delayed or slowed start of urinary stream and dribbling or leakage of urine. Diagnosis testing for Prostate Cancer are digital rectal examinations, Prostate Specific Antigen (or PSA), and biopsy. Treatments include Radical Prostatectomy, High powered x-ray or Radioactive Seeds and Hormone Therapy. The success rate for curing early stage Prostate Cancer is high, but despite the many excellent and successful curative therapies, the disease does come back in some men.

Often nobody knows why. (“…Treatment…” 167) Prostate Cancer is the third most common cause of death due to cancer in American men of all ages and the most common cause of death for men over the age of 75. Prostate Cancer is rarely found in men younger than age 40. Men developed this disease most often after the age of 50. (“Fact Sheet”) It is estimated that more than 230,000 men will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer this year. Prostate Cancer is a disease in which cancerous cell develop in the prostate (one of the male sex gland).

The cause of Prostate Cancer is unknown, but with early symptoms such as frequent urination are signs of this cancer. The most common diagnoses of Prostate Cancer are digital rectal examinations, Prostate Specific Antigen (or PSA), and biopsy. (“Prostate”) The longer the cancer has been in the prostate gland there are less chances of fully getting rid of the cancer. Several treatments have been very successful in providing a cure or for the most part keeping the cancer under control. Symptoms There are many symptoms that can cause suspicion of Prostate Cancer.

While very few men show no signs or symptoms of this cancer many men show signs in their urine. (“Prostate Cancer”) Frequent urination, the frequent use of the bathroom, is one of the most common signs of Prostate Cancer. During the night a male that possibly has this cancer uses the bathroom 6 to 7 times. (“Fact Sheet”) Other symptoms may include blood in the urine or semen, delayed or slowed start of urinary stream and dribbling or leakage of urine. Bone pain or tenderness, along with pain in bowel movements, can also be a major symptom, but not as common.

(“Prostate Cancer”) Although these are symptoms of Prostate Cancer, they can also be signs of other diseases and is recommended to see a doctor for diagnostic testing. Diagnosis There are multiple methods for screening for Prostate Cancer; the most common is Digital Rectal Examination. During a digital rectal exam a doctor inserts a glove, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for any irregular or abnormal firm area in the prostate gland. Another method to detect this cancer is with a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA).

Protein in the blood that is produced only by prostate cells is reflected the volume of both benign and malignant prostate tissue in the PSA. The higher the PSA level is the more likely it is that Prostate Cancer present. (“Prostate Cancer”) The blood level is enzyme produced by the prostate. If this level is elevated 50%, chances are you may have this cancer, or noncancerous conditions, such as, benign prostate hyperplasic (BPH) prostate inflammation, prostate infection, or trauma, can also increase PSA levels. In addition, a biopsy can also detect Prostate Cancer.

This method is preformed to obtain samples of Prostate tissue, which are then examined by pathologists to make a formal diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. A biopsy is the only test that can confirm Prostate Cancer. Treatment Treatment options depend on stage of the cancer, the patient’s age and general health. Most common is surgery. Radical Prostatectomy to remove the prostate and some of the tissue around it is an option when the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate gland, normally done by robotic surgery. Radiation Therapy is another treatment option.

High powered x-ray or Radioactive Seeds are used to kill the cancer. Radiation therapy works best to treat prostate cancer that has not spread outside of the prostate may also be used for pain relief when cancer has spread. Prostate tumors need testosterone to grow. Hormone Therapy is ant treatment that decreases the effect of testosterone on prostate cancer. This treatment can prevent further growth and spread of cancer. Conclusion In conclusion prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death in men of ages 50 and older.

(“Fact Sheet”) The cause to this disease is unknown but the symptoms vary from frequent urination to slowed or delayed start of urination. This cancer can be diagnosed with rectal examination, by PSA, or biopsy. (“Prostate”) Treatments can also vary and depending on the amount of time you have had this disease it can or can’t be treated. The success rate for curing early stage Prostate Cancer is high, but despite the many excellent and successful curative therapies, the disease does come back in some men. Often nobody knows why. (“…Treatment…” 167)

References

(2009, October 6). Retrieved Marth 20, 2011, from University of Maryland Greenbaum Cancer Center: http://www. umgcc/gu_program/prostate. htm (“Prostate”) Fact Sheet. (2010, December 1). Retrieved March 20, 2011, from UCSF Health: http://ucsfhealth. org/condition/prostate_cancerindex. html (“Fact Sheet”) Grimm, P. D. , Blasko, J. C. , & Sylvester, J. E. (2003). The Prostate Cancer Treament Book. Seattle: McGraw-Hill. (“…Treatment.. ”) Smith, J. , Persade, R. , Jefferson, K. , & Patel, B. (2003). Prostate Cancer. Harley: Castle Hill Barns. (“Prostate Cancer”).

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