Parents should be tested to see if they are carrying genes for genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis and haemophilia, if they are carriers they can find out about the risks. Folic acid is a form of vitamin B which is obtained through leafy green vegetables, it is essential for synthesis DNA and therefore the growth and division of cells, it also helps the production of red blood cells. It is important during a pregnancy a woman’s level of folic acid should be topped up even before she conceives – the recommendation is three months before trying for a baby. If a woman is deficient in folic acid it means that you are likely to become anaemic, which causes problems such as premature delivery, low birth weight or a malformed baby.
The most obvious type of malformation is spina bifida or anencephaly. These are both neural tube defects, which basically means that the metabolism of the foetus is not developing at a normal rate. The need for folic acid is greatly increased during a pregnancy, particularly in women who have been taking oral contraceptives (the pill) for a long time. To increase the level of folic acid you can eat things like:Secondary stage – Skin rash and mucous membrane lesions characterize the secondary stage. This stage typically starts with the development of a rash on one or more areas of the body.
The rash usually does not cause itching. Rashes associated with secondary syphilis can appear as the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed. The characteristic rash of secondary syphilis may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots both on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body, sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases. Sometimes rashes associated with secondary syphilis are so faint that they are not noticed. In addition to rashes, symptoms of secondary syphilis may include fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and fatigue. The signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis will resolve with or without treatment, but without treatment, the infection will progress to the latent and late stages of disease.
Late stage – The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when secondary symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infected person will continue to have syphilis even though there are no signs or symptoms; infection remains in the body. In the late stages of syphilis, it may subsequently damage the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. This internal damage may show up many years later. Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. This damage may be serious enough to cause death.
These STD’s are having an affect on fertility in young people today as people don’t release they have them or don’t see a doctor, they leave it too late and it causes them to become infertile. If you are trying to conceive it is best to avoid X-Rays or any form of radiation unless it is absolutely necessary. This is because any developing baby (foetus) will be rapidly making new cells and X-rays and radiation rays will destroy new or healthy cells.
Dysentery is dangerous to pregnant women because it can cause dehydration; they lose a large amount of important salts and fluids from the body. The dehydration can be fatal if untreated as vital organs like the kidneys, brain and heart can not function without a certain amount of water and salt. The infection is usually carried in the faeces of a person who is already infected and its symptoms are severe diarrhoea and abdominal pains. There are 2 types of dysentery: amoebic dysentery which is usually found in the drinking water of tropical countries, and bacterial dysentery. In this country, any dysentery infection will normally be caused by bacteria. The main cause is an infected person failing to wash their hands after going to the toilet, and then handling food.
Spina Bifida is a defect where one or more parts of the vertebrae (spine) do not fully develop. This allows a section of the spinal cord to remain exposed. It is possible for the condition to occur anywhere along the spinal cord, but it is more usual for it to happen quite low down the back. Both the spine and the vertebral column start to form a flat layer of cells. The edges of these cells come together to form a tube. This tube is the hollow cavity inside the spinal cord. High levels of folic acid in the mother’s blood are needed particularly at the start of pregnancy as it is vital that the neural tube closes. Myelomeningocele – Myelomeningocele is the severest form, in which the spinal cord and its protective covering (meninges) protrude from an opening in the spine.
Meningocele – Meningocele is when the spinal cord develops normally but the meninges protrude from a spinal opening Occulta – Occulta is the mildest form, in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and covered by a layer of skin. There is no cure for Spina bifida because the nerve tissue cannot be repaired or replaced. Treatment for the variety of effects of Spina bifida may include surgery, medication, and physiotherapy. Many individuals with Spina bifida will need assistive devices such as braces, crutches, or wheelchairs. Ongoing therapy, medical care, and/or surgical treatments may be necessary to prevent and manage complications throughout the individual’s life. Surgery to close the newborn’s spinal opening is generally performed within 24 hours after birth to minimize the risk of infection and to preserve existing function in the spinal cord.