Practice test ch 18 pt 2

31. Given the tendency of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas, which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?
A) “People who exercise regularly are very extraverted.”
B) “All political liberals are advocates of a reduced defense budget.”
C) “Young people today have no sense of responsibility.”
D) “Older people are lazy.”
C

32. We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.
A) similar to one another; different from one another
B) different from one another; similar to one another
C) above average in ability; below average in ability
D) below average in ability; above average in ability
B

33. Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of:
A) the ingroup bias.
B) prejudice.
C) the scapegoat theory.
D) the reciprocity norm.
C

34. The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the:
A) just-world phenomenon.
B) phenomenon of ingroup bias.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) mirror-image perception principle.
A

35. Aggression is defined as behavior that:
A) hurts another person.
B) is intended to hurt another person.
C) is hostile, passionate, and produces physical injury.
D) has all of the above characteristics.
B

36. Which of the following is true about aggression?
A) It varies too much to be instinctive in humans.
B) It is just one instinct among many.
C) It is instinctive but shaped by learning.
D) It is the most important human instinct.
A

37. Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone:
A) estrogen.
B) adrenaline.
C) noradrenaline.
D) testosterone.
D

38. Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true?
A) Consumption of alcohol increases aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone reduce aggressive behavior.
B) Consumption of alcohol reduces aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone increase aggressive behavior.
C) Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior.
D) Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both reduce aggressive behavior.
C

39. After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter, frightening the clerk. Teresa’s behavior is best explained by:
A) evolutionary psychology.
B) the reciprocity norm.
C) social exchange theory.
D) the frustration-aggression principle.
D

40. Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:
A) makes a woman’s friendliness seem more sexual.
B) diminishes the attitude that rape is a serious crime.
C) may lead individuals to devalue their partners.
D) may produce all of the above effects.
D

41. Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is:
A) increased by exposure to pornography.
B) not changed after exposure to pornography.
C) decreased in men by exposure to pornography.
D) decreased in both men and women by exposure to pornography.
A

42. Most researchers agree that:
A) media violence is a factor in aggressive behavior.
B) there is a negative correlation between media violence and aggressiveness.
C) paradoxically, watching excessive pornography ultimately diminishes an individual’s aggressive tendencies.
D) media violence is too unreal to promote aggression in viewers.
A

43. Social traps are situations in which:
A) conflicting parties realize that they have shared goals, the attainment of which requires their mutual cooperation.
B) conflicting parties have similar, and generally negative, views of one another.
C) conflicting parties each pursue their self-interests and become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
D) two conflicting groups meet face-to-face in an effort to resolve their differences.
C

44. Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insensitive. Their conflict is being fueled by:
A) self-disclosure.
B) stereotypes.
C) a social trap.
D) mirror-image perceptions.
D

45. Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?
A) similarity in age
B) common racial and religious background
C) similarity in physical attractiveness
D) physical proximity
D

46. Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by:
A) the principle of equity.
B) the principle of self-disclosure.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) mirror-image perceptions.
C

47. The mere exposure effect demonstrates that:
A) familiarity breeds contempt.
B) opposites attract.
C) birds of a feather flock together.
D) familiarity breeds fondness.
D

48. Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?
A) their personalities
B) their beliefs
C) their social skills
D) their physical attractiveness
D

49. Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?
A) Birds of a feather flock together.
B) Opposites attract.
C) Familiarity breeds contempt.
D) Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
A

50. Opening her mail, Joan discovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just:
A) completed her daily run.
B) finished reading a chapter in her psychology textbook.
C) awakened from a nap.
D) finished eating lunch.
A

51. In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men:
A) reported more positive feelings toward the woman.
B) reported more negative feelings toward the woman.
C) were ambiguous about their feelings toward the woman.
D) were more likely to feel that the woman was “out of their league” in terms of attractiveness.
A

52. The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.
A) passionate; there is equity between the partners
B) passionate; traditional roles are maintained
C) companionate; there is equity between the partners
D) companionate; traditional roles are maintained
C

53. Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation the presence of others often:
A) prevents people from even noticing the situation.
B) prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergency.
C) prevents people from assuming responsibility for assisting.
D) leads to all of the above.
D

54. Increasing the number of people who are present during an emergency tends to:
A) increase the likelihood that people will cooperate in rendering assistance.
B) decrease the empathy that people feel for the victim.
C) increase the role that social norms governing helping will play.
D) decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.
D

55. Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?
A) being in a good mood
B) having recently needed help and not received it
C) observing someone as he or she refuses to offer help
D) being a female
A

56. According to social exchange theory, a person’s tendency toward altruistic behavior is based on:
A) a determination of the relatedness of those who will be affected.
B) a cost-benefit analysis of any action.
C) social norms.
D) all of the above.
B

57. After Sandy helped Jack move into his new apartment, Jack felt obligated to help Sandy when she moved. Jack’s sense of responsibility can best be explained by:
A) evolutionary psychology.
B) two-factor theory.
C) the social responsibility norm.
D) the reciprocity norm.
D

58. Driving home from work, Althea saw a car run off the road and burst into flames. Althea stopped her car, ran to the burning vehicle, and managed to pull the elderly driver to safety before the car exploded. Althea’s behavior can best be explained by:
A) the social responsibility norm.
B) the reciprocity norm.
C) two-factor theory.
D) reward theory.
A

59. Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?
A) Take steps to reduce the likelihood of social traps.
B) Separate the groups so that tensions diminish.
C) Increase the amount of contact between the two conflicting groups.
D) Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.
D

60. Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?
A) The fact that two sides in a conflict have great respect for the other’s strengths prevents further escalation of the problem.
B) The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.
C) The two sides agree to have their differences settled by a neutral, third-party mediator.
D) The two sides engage in cooperation in those areas in which shared goals are possible.
B

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