|Pharmacy (Detailed) | |Sr. No. |Core Areas |Percentage | | | | | | |PHARMACEUTICS: | | | |1. Pharmaceutical Principles and Drug Dosage Forms______6% | | | |1. 1 Physicochemical Behaviors: | | | |1. 1. 1 Homogenous Systems: | | | |Solutions: | | | |Solvents, Solutes, Electrolytes, Non-electrolytes | | | |Colligative properties: | | |1. |Lowering of vapor pressure, Elevation of boiling point, Depression of freezing point, Osmosis and | | | |Osmotic pressure. | | | |Buffers and buffer capacity: |20 % | | |What are the buffers, Buffer action, and Buffer capacity? | | | |1. 1.

2 Heterogeneous (Disperse) Systems: | | | |Basics about Suspensions and Emulsions | | | |Dispersion stability: | | | |Ideal dispersion, Particle size, Dispersed phase concentrations, Particle-particle interactions, | | | |Density. | | | | | | | |Emulsion Stability: | | | |Creaming, Coalescence, electrostatic repulsion, Phase inversion, Cracking. | | | | | | | |1. 2 Chemical Kinetics and Drug Stability: | | | |Introduction to stability of active ingredients: | | | |Reaction rates and orders of reaction. | | | | | | | |Factors affecting the reaction rates: | | | |Temperature, Presence of Solvent, Change in pH, Presence of additives.

| | | |Modes of pharmaceutical Degradation: | | | |Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Photolysis. | | | |2. Drug Dosage Forms ___________________________________6% | | | | | | | |Basics of Dosage forms: | | | |Tablets: | | | |Definition, Types, Advantages and disadvantages, Methods of Manufacturing, Excepients, Tablet | | | |defects, Coating effects. | | | |Capsules: | | | |Definition, Types, Methods of Manufacturing, Excepients. | | | |Oral drug solutions: | | | |Syrups and their additives, elixirs and their additives. | | | |Suspensions: | | | |Types, Purpose of suspensions, Suspending agents.

| | | |Emulsions: | | | |Types, Purpose of emulsion, Phases of emulsions, Emulsifying agents, Creams and Ointments; | | | |Introduction, Types of creams and ointments, Types of their bases, methods for preparation. | | | |Suppositories: | | | |Introduction, Types, Suppository bases, methods for preparation. | | | |Powders: | | | |Definition, Advantages and Disadvantages, Micromeretics, Trituration, Pulverization, Levigation, | | | |Spatulation, Simple and geometric mixing, Hygroscopic, Deliquescent substances, Eutectic mixtures. | | | |Aerosol Products: | | | |Introduction, Advantages and disadvantages, Aerosol additives.

| | | |Sterile Products: | | | |Sterility, Introduction, advantages and disadvantages of additives of Injectable. | | | | | | | |3. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems __________8 % | | | |Definitions: | | | |Biopharmaceutics, Drug Product, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, | | | |Absorption, Distribution, Elimination. | | | |Biopharmaceutical Principles: | | | |Drug Dissolution, Drug Solubility, Particle size and surface area, Partition coefficient and extent | | | |of ionization, Salt formation, Polymorphism, Chirality, Hydrates, Complex formation.

| | | |Basic Pharmacokinetics: | | | |Zero order and first order reactions, Models and compartments, Drug Distribution and elimination. | | | |Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: | | | |Relative and Absolute bioavailability, AUC, Cmax, Tmax, Half-life, Sustained Release/Controlled | | | |Release Dosage forms, Introduction, Microencapsulation, Microspheres/Microcapsules, Dose dumping. | | |2. | |20 % | | |PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY: | | | |1. Instrumentation_______________________________________6 %

| | | | | | | |Basic Principle, instrumentation and Pharmaceutical applications of following techniques; HPLC, | | | |UV-spectrophotometery, IR | | | |2. Chemistry of Biomolecules_____________________________7% | | | | | | | |Introduction, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, | | | |Enzymes and Hormones | | | |3. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry ______________________7% | | | |3. 1 Structure Activity Relationship; | | | |3. 1. 1 Structurally non-specific drugs, | | | |3. 1.

2 Structurally specific drugs | | | |Receptor-site theory, Receptor-site Binding, Stereochemistry (optical isomers, geometric isomers and | | | |conformational isomers) | | |3. | |20 % | | |PHARMACOLOGY: | | | |1. General Pharmacology_______________________________ 7 % | | | | | | | |Introduction,Pharmacokinetics,Pharmacodynamics, Dose, Efficacy, Safety, Potency, Dosage, Drug-Dose | | | |

Response curve, Therapeutic index, Receptors, Agonists and antagonists, Pharmacological antagonism | | | |(Competitive and Non-competitive), Partial antagonist, Physiological antagonism, Neutralizing | | | |antagonism. | | | | | | | |2. Mechanism of Drug Actions ___________________________7 % | | | | | | |

|Cell surface receptors, Signal transduction by cell-surface receptors, Signaling mediated by | | | |intracellular receptors, Target cell desensitization and hypersensitization, Pharmacological effects | | | |not mediated by receptors (for example anesthetics and cathartics).

| | | | | | | |3. Pharmacology of commonly used drug classes________6 % | | | |Classification, mechanism of action, indications and adverse effects of following commonly used drug | | | |classes; analgesics/antipyretics, anti-infective, antihypertensive, Diuretics, Anti-parasitic, | | | |Anti-malarial, drug sued in gastrointestinal disorders. | | |4. | | | | |PHARMACOGNOSY: |20 % | | |1.

General introduction __________________________________7 % | | | | | | | |Classification of Crude Drugs with Special Emphasis to Chemical and Therapeutical System of | | | |Classification. | | | |Terminologies used in Pharmacognosy; Pharmacognosy, crude drugs, Preparation of Crude Drugs for | | | |Commercial Market, Methods of Cultivation, Drying, Storage. Preservation, Packing, Deterioration and | | | |Adulteration of Crude Drugs. Evaluation of Crude Drugs (Organoleptic, Microscopic, Physical, Chemical| | | |and Biological).

| | | | | | | |Allergens and allergenic preparation_____________________7 % | | | | | | | |Introduction, case history, skin test, treatment off allergy, inhalant, ingestant, injectant, | | | |contactant, infectant and infestant allergens. Mechanism of allergy. | | | | | | | |3. Separation and isolation of plant constituents___________6 % | | | |An introduction to chromatography and chromatographic techniques e. g. Adsorption Chromatography and | | | |Partition Chromatography.

| | |5. | | | | |PHARMACY PRACTICE: |20 % | | |1. Community/Retail Pharmacy __________________________4% | | | | | | | |Basic introduction about; Prescription (parts, handling and filling of prescriptions), Medication | | | |order, Difference between Prescription and Medication order, Dose calculations, Compounding, | | | |Extemporaneous preparations, Pharmaceutical Care, Dispensing, Epidemiology, Drug abuse & Misuse. | | | |

Patient Medication Record. | | | | | | | |2. Medication errors______________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Definition, Types of errors; Wrong drug error, Extra dose error, Omission error, wrong strength | | | |error, Wrong route error, Wrong time error, Wrong dosage form errors. | | | | | | | |3. Clinical Pharmacy ____________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Clinical trials, Importance of Clinical| | | |Pharmacy, Pharmaco-economics, Pharmaco-vigilance, Patient Assessment, Patient Counseling, Patient | | | |Compliance/non-compliance, Rational use of drugs, Drug Utilization Evaluation, Drug Utilization | | | |Review.

| | | | | | | |4. Adverse Drug Reactions_______________________________4% | | | | | | | |Definition and difference between Adverse drug reactions and side effects, Types of Adverse drug | | | |reactions (Type-A and type-B). | | | | | | | |5. Drug interactions____________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Mechanism, Physiological factors affecting interaction, Types and level of drug interactions. | | | |Total |100% |.

The capacity of each patient to understand and process the information on healthcare that would affect their formulation of decisions regarding their health is termed as healthcare literacy. Health care providers have a significant role in the health literacy of …

REPORT ON AN ONLINE SEMINAR ON PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY: WITH EMPHASIS ON PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG FORMS. SUMChemistry is the science that underpinned most of the major discoveries of the 20th century and will continue to do so throughout the 21st, as emphasis …

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click SUBMIT EXAM . Answers will not be recorded until you hit SUBMIT EXAM . If you need to exit before completing the exam, click CANCEL EXAM . QUESTIONS 1 …

1. PHARMACOLOGY IS: Traditional (Broad) Definition “the science of pharmacological agents” Modern (Narrow) Definition “the science of drugs” 2. A DRUG IS: “a chemical substance, not part of the normal diet, which affects an organism’s physiology. ” Broad Definition “any …

Definition of terms| Found almost at the end of the document with 12 terms defined| Found at earlier part of the document with 31 terms identified| THE COUNCIL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION | Found on article II| Not found in any …

“Pharmacon / Xenobiotic” “medicine”/ “recreational  drug” DISCUSSION POINTS RELATED TO DEFINITIONS The car analogy. QUERY: Drugs vs. foods? (“physiological” vs “pharmacological dose”) Drugs vs. medicines? Drugs vs. poisons? Disinfectants? (Not used on the body. ) Antiseptics? (Often don’t  enter  the …

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