pols 1101 final exam review

political equality
is the state under which people have the same rights to vote, to run for office, to exercise free speech and free press, and perhaps to education.

social equality
is the state of equality and fair treatment within the public and private institutions that serve the public.

economic equality
this means only equality of economic opportunity, while to others, it means more an equality of results.

civil equality.
the civil rights movement in the U.S. has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.

civil liberties
we derive our civil liberties from the Bill of Rights, like freedom of expression.

civil rights
refers to positive rights (political, social, or economic) conferred by the government on individuals or groups previously denied them.

litigations
any judicial contest, including all the events that lead up to a possible court event.

civil disobedience
is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is commonly, though not always defined as being nonviolent resistance.

universal suffrage
is the civil right to vote.

the USA patriot act
commonly known as the ‘Patriot Act’ is an act of the U.S. Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The title of the act is a contrived three letter initialism (USA) preceding a seven letter acronym (PATRIOT), which in combination stand for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate To9ols Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001.

do state and local governments today employ more people than the national government?
yes, The two biggest employers are the U.S. Postal Service (800,000 workers) and the Department of Defense (650,000 civilian staff); the greatest growth in government has been at the local level, federal employment has remained stable.

trial
is where parties present evidence before a judge.

indictment
a decision by a grand jury authorizing the government to proceed to trial against the defendant.

natural rights
based on the natural laws of human society, exist outside of formal government, are inalienable, and cannot be legitimately removed.

black codes
were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to limit the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.

jim crow laws
enabled by the southern states, it required segregation of blacks and whites in public schools, railroads, buses, restaurants, hotels, theaters, and other public facilities.

legal boycott
A lawful concerted attempt by a group of people to express displeasure with, or obtain concessions from, a particular person or company by refusing to do business with them.

1964 civil rights act
voter registration, public accomodations, public schools, employment

what was the primary purpose of the voting rights act of 1965?
ban literacy tests and property requirements.

title vii of the civil rights act of 1964
prohibits discrimination in private and public businesses

title ix of the civil rights act of 1964
ban of racial discrimination in public and privately owned places and discrimination by employers created the EEO.; requires colleges to field as many female sports teams as male teams.

glass ceiling
based on bias reduces the promotions and raises available to women.

civil war ammendments
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.

The first ammendment deals with
Protects the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the government;

the fourth ammendment deals with
Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause

the fifth ammendment also protects the accused
Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy

the eighth ammendment deals with
Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment

13th amendment
Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime

14th amendment
Defines citizenship and deals with post-Civil War issues; was meant to protect freed slaves from state discrimination, and due process clause states that no state could ‘deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law’.

15th amendment
guaranteed the right of citizens to vote.

what is the % of americans 65 years and older (from 4 percent of all americans in 1900 to today americans over sixty five years of age make up a rapidly growing demographic group with considerably increased political influence)
Since 1900, the percentage of Americans 65+ has tripled (from 4.1% in 1900 to 12.6% in 2007), and the number has increased twelve times (from 3.1 million to 37.9 million)

what is ada act americans with disability act of 1990 and what is it supposed to do
prohibits job discrimination against individuals with physical or mental disabilities. Requires physical access to public buildings and public services.

what was the decision of the court in 1954 ruling in brown vs board of education?
The decision of the Court in the 1954 ruling in what case was that it ended segregation in public schools.

plessy vs ferguson
(1896) is where the Court upheld that racial segregation laws did not technically violate equal protection as long as accommodations were equal (separate but equal doctrine).

the 1857 supreme court ruling in dred scott vs sandford stunned abolitionists
SLAVE WHO LIVED FREE IN ILLINOIS BUT MOVED TO MISSOURI A SLAVE STATE AND WANTED HIS FREEDOM; proclaimed slaves as the permanent property of their owners – judicial review both federal and state laws has remained unchallenged in the U.S. political system; this stunned abolitionists.

regents of the university of california v bakke (1978) was a supreme court case
(1978) was a Supreme Court case. The Court ruled that schools could not set quotas, but could otherwise consider race/ethnicity for the purpose of diversity; WANTED ADMISSION TO MEDICAL SCHOOL DESPITE BETTER GRADES AND GPA, MINORITY GOT SELECTED

1rst amendment- freedom of religion, establishment clause(what is the purpose of the establishment clause of the 1st amendment)(did the first amendment ‘s free excercise clause bans government laws that prohibit the free exercise of religion?)
free exercise clause bans government laws that prohibit the freedom of worship.

ex post facto laws
new laws retroactively applied.

prior restraint laws
Government prohibition of speech in advance of publication

stare decisis
stand by the decision

double jeopardy
prevents people from being tried twice for the same offense.

judical discretion
is the power to make official decisions using reason and judgment to choose from among acceptable alternatives.

amicus curiae brief
“friend of the court” briefs, written documents filed by outside parties witha n interest in the outcome of the litigation expressing their own views on how the Court should decide a particular case.

who was the first african americans elected to congress?
2 Joseph Rainey ;1 Hiram Rhodes Revels

who was the first female supreme court justice
SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR

1st hispanic supreme court justice
Samuel Alito.

affirmative action developed in the 1970s as a new tactic what was its purpose
a law that requires organizations to recruit, hire, train and promote minorities & women without requiring the same standard

descrimination de jour {de jure segregation}
segregation sanctioned by law.racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies

descrimination defacto {de facto segregation}
segregation that occurs in reality. Continues to be a factor in many schools. segregation that occurs because of past social economical conditions and residential racial patterns

in 2003 the us supreme court revisited the bakke decision in the court case of grutter vs bollinger what was the courts ruling in this 2003 case concerning affirmative action
The Court ruled that race/ethnicity could not be applied in a formulaic, automatic fashion, but could be used as one factor among many.

what did equal rights ammendment did it pass or fail? In 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment and sent it to the state legislatures for ratification. What was the impact of the ERA?
Banned all discrimination based on sex.;EQUALITY OF RIGHTS UNDER THE LAW SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED ON ACCOUNT OF SEX

administrative discretion
when implementation laws are vague, agencies use this, widespread freedom implementation.

what kind of discrimination did japanese face in 1942…Did Japanese Americans suffered tremendous discrimination in 1942 when over 60,000 United States citizens of Japanese ancestry were relocated into internment camps?
Yes, the Japanese American suffered tremendous discrimination in 1942 when over 60,000 U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry were relocated into internment camps. This action was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1944.

What effect did the events of September 11, 2001 have on Muslim Americans?
9/11 negatively affected the Muslim Americans already here on American soil. The U.S. government would question and sometimes detain. This was called racial profiling and caused concern by civil rights groups.

whats the pop of people of Hispanic descent currently live in the United States.
35 million 13%

pop african americans
35 million 13%

pop women
55%

How long do justices of the U.S. Supreme Court serve?
for life, cant fire them or reduce pay

civil law
refers to the rules and codes enacted by government bodies or authorities, (term also refers to the body of non-criminal laws that deal with the rights of private citizens).

common law
refers to the rulings handed down by individual judges through their judicial opinions.

s.o.p. standard operating procedure
IS A SET OF WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS THAT DOCUMENT A ROUTINE OR REPETITIVE ACTIVITY FOLLOWED BY AN ORGANIZATION;the rules that employers know and follow.

criminal law
the rules and regulations that declare behavior that is an offense against society (murder, rape, burglary) and prescribes punishment for this conduct.

constitutional law
A BODY OF STATUTORY AND CASE LAW THAT IS BASED ON, CONCERNS, OR INTERPRETS A CONSTITUTION;the rules and judicial interpretations of rules found in fundamental federal or state laws, such as the U.S. Constitution, normally considered “supreme” and overriding all others.

administration law
a law that relates to the authority of the administrative agencies and the rules promulgated by those agencies.

precedent
an act, instance, or judicial decision that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar cases.

the federal governments bureaucracy is ultimately the responsibility of who
president assigns them and congress approves them;is the responsibility of the executive branch.

policy implementation
is the process of carrying out a law. Congressional laws may involve developing new programs/services or modifying old ones.

bureaucratic oversight whos responsibility
commanding accountability along with the president.BUREAUCRAT EXERCISE OF ITS AUTHORITY TO MONITOR THE ACTIVITIES OF AGANCIES AND ADMINISTRATORS

Occupational Safety and Health Administration osha – whats their responsibility
ENSURES SAFE AND HEALTHFUL WORKING CONDITIONS BY ENFORCING STANDARDS;workplace safety laws

environmental protection agency epa
GOVERNS THE AIR AND WATER AND HE EMISSION OF CHEMICALS INTO THE AIR AND BODIES OF WATER; environmental laws

defendant
the target of a plaintiff’s complaint explaining why he or she is entitled to some form of relief under the current law.

plantiff
the party that chooses to initiate formal legal proceedings in a civil case.

plea bargin
is an agreement in a criminal case whereby the prosecutor offers the defendant the opportunity to plead guilty, usually to a lesser charge or to the original criminal charge with a recommendation of a lighter than the maximum sentence

whats the job of U.S. Solicitor General
the person that argues for the federal government

deregulation
removing rules and regulations, which eliminated the need for oversight.

devolution
shifting power and responsibility partly back to states to shrink the size of national government.

privatization
replacing government providers with private-sector actors (private competition may result in lower costs, and private actors may be more flexible).;when you hire a corporation to do a job # 1 reason for it is to save money. Taxpayers pay people to run the schools. Privatization makes a profit

reinventing government
increasing bureaucratic accountability, seen in efforts by President Clinton and Vice President Gore (some feel these efforts to create a more entrepreneurial spirit, with market-driven and business-oriented planning, have improved government effectiveness and efficiency).

congressional oversight
commanding accountability along with the president.

what is the purpose of the General Accounting Office (GAO)?
to help assess the performance, cost, and effectiveness of various agencies; it is controlled by Congress.;TO INVESTIGATE THE ACTIONS OR INACTIONS OF AN AGENCY. HOW THE GOVERNMENT SPENDS TAXPAYER DOLLARS

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may take what action against a company that violates an employee’s rights?
responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee. It can investigate and settle or file a lawsuit o protect the rights of individuals and the interests of the public.;PRIMARY MISSION IN RELATION TO FEDERAL EMPLOYEES ARE PROMOTION OF EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN THE FEDERAL WORKPLACE AND ENFORCEMENT OF FED LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION

administrative judge
new deal – president assoc with it and what was accomplishment (New Deal programs were created to counter the negative effects of the great depression)
is the presiding officer at an administrative hearing.;IS AN EEOC EMPLOYEE WHO INDEPENDENTLY DECIDES DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

administrative judge
is the presiding officer at an administrative hearing.;IS AN EEOC EMPLOYEE WHO INDEPENDENTLY DECIDES DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

great society or the war on poverty programs assoc with which president and what was the accomplishment of it
LBJ; new laws aimed at social and economic improvements to American society through a highly activist role of the federal government. A set of aggressive federal domestic policies that further enhanced the role of the presidency.

How many justices does the Constitution require for the Supreme Court?
constitution says nothing about how many people can be in the supreme court

what % of court cases end up in plea bargain (Approximately what percentage of convictions in the federal judicial system are the direct result of a negotiated plea bargain?)
96%

bureaucracy
is an organization set up in a logical manner to accomplish specific functions, any government agency.; any government agency known as the fourth branch of the government

downsizing
is the reduction of employees on an operating payroll, “trimming the fat”.

outsourcing
is a way to start building foundations in other countries.

judicial review
interpret the law; the power of a court to declare acts of the other branches of government or of a subordinate government to be unconstitutional and thus invalid.

judicial activism
ruling based on social policies that they preferred, thus making laws rather than following them.

judicial restraint
justices adhere to past court precedents.

head of each cabinet department (secretary) and how do they get their jobs
At the head of each cabinet department is a secretary who reports directly to the president. These secretaries are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

we have 15 cabinet positions – which one is the newest
The Department of Homeland Security

department of homeland security
is a Cabinet department of the United States federal government with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the U.S. from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters.

right of certiorari.
an order by which the Court acts (a minority are filed through a cert petition, asking that the Court hear a case for one final appeal).

fema – federal emergency management agency which cabinet is it in or department (The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a primary unit of which agency)
The Federal Emergency Management Agency; TO SUPPORT CITIZENS IN PREPARATION OF NATURAL DISASTERS, FALLS UNDER HOMELAND SECURITY

independent agencies
lack the high status of Cabinet departments. those agencies that exist outside of the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary). However, most independent agencies are part of the executive branch, with only a few being part of the legislative or judicial branches.

regulatory agencies
are responsible for implementing economic rules/regulations. is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity. An independent regulatory agency is a regulatory agency that is independent from other branches or arms of the government.

government corporations
are set up to run like private companies even though they serve a public purpose.

The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) created in what year and whats it about
an independent agency of the United States government that manages the civil service of the federal government. The current Director is John Berry and the Deputy Director is Christine Griffin.1979

Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) created in what year and whats it about
The Office of Personal Management (OPM) and the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) which was created in 1978; they manage the civil service today. They replaced the Civil Service Commission.

In 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. What is the 1883 pendalton civil services reform act all about
created a merit system with objective standards, ensured greater continuity, and set up a Civil Service Commission to oversee hiring and firing.

whats patronage system when it comes to civil service reform
a practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.

merit system
is a system of appointing and promoting civil service personal based on merit rather than political affiliation or loyalty.

Which government corporation operates a railroad service of the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, maintaining 20,000 miles of track and operating 500 stations across the nation?
AMTRAK

whats pornography
the portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual excitement and erotic satisfaction

obscenity
words or publications that tend to violate accepted standards of decency, has long been an exception to free expression, even after the sexual revolution.

habeas corpus.
“you have the body”; a judicial mandate to a prison official ordering that an inmate be brought to the Court so it can be determined whether imprisoned lawfully and whether or not he should be released.

Characteristics of a bureaucrat
heirarchy, specialization, rules and regulations, neutrality, they make policies

marbury vs madison
was the first time the Supreme Court declared something “unconstitutional”, and established the concept of judicial review in the U.S. (the idea that courts may oversee and nullify the actions of another branch of government). The landmark decision helped define the “checks and balances” of the American form of government.

supreme court
a political institution thought they are set up individually

majority opinion
when you have 5 out of 9 vote

minority opinion
% that says no

dessenting opinion
is an opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment. Sometimes the outcome of an earlier case detrmines the outcome of another case

rosa parks
an African American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress later called “the first lady of civil rights”, and “the mother of the freedom movement”;she refused to give up her seat for a white man

Another hotly debated topic concerning civil rights is racial profiling.
the use of an individual’s race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel as a key factor in deciding whether to engage in enforcement (e.g. make a traffic stop or arrest). The practice is controversial and widely considered inappropriate and illegal

sexual harrassment
continual unwanted sexual advances from a boss in exchange for getting ahead in the company

the legislative branch
(Congress has the lower and upper houses) their job is to make laws.

the executive branch
(the President), their job is to enforce the laws.

the judical branch
(the Supreme Court), their job is to interpret the laws.

1. State and local governments today employ more people than the national government.
true

2. The United States can best be described as a/an __________________ system.
federalist

3. Article ________ of the United States Constitution lists the powers of Congress.
one

4. Article _______ of the United States Constitution is the federal supremacy clause.
6

65. The constitutions, laws and policies of the 50 states cannot contradict the United States Constitution.
true

6. The ______ amendment to the United States Constitution often is called the “states’ rights” amendment.
10th

7. The longest of the state constitutions in total words is the __________ Constitution.
alabama

8. Georgia has had ________ constitutions.
10

9. The United States Constitution has a Bill of Rights, but the Georgia Constitution does not.
false

10. Both the United States Congress and the Georgia General Assembly are bicameral.
true

11. Both the United States Constitution and Georgia Constitution permit judicial review.
true

12. The United States Constitution has more articles than the Georgia Constitution.
false

13. Georgia voters must approve all amendments to the state constitution.
true

14. The Georgia Constitution requires the state to have a balanced budget.
true

16. Georgia elects almost all its judges on a nonpartisan ballot.
false

17. All legislators in Georgia (both House and Senate) serve two-year terms.
true

15. The Governor of Georgia does not possess the power of the line-item veto.
false

18. Georgia has a cabinet system like the executive branch of the federal government.
false

19. The Georgia Constitution limits the number of counties at __________.
159

20. Georgia’s first constitution became effective in ________.
1777

21. The first Georgia constitution disestablished the Anglican Church.
true

22. The first Georgia constitution established a state supreme court.
false

23. Georgia was the first state to ratify the United States Constitution.
false

24. In the second Georgia constitution slaves were counted for representation purposes as _________ of a person.
3/5ths

25. Georgia’s constitutions made no provision for public education until the 20th century.
false

26. At one point the Georgia legislature elected the governor.
true

27. The main author of the Confederate Constitution was also the author of the Georgia constitution under the confederacy.
true

28. After the Civil War northern troops remained in Georgia until _________.
1876

29. The county-unit system in Georgia tended to give disproportionate strength to urban areas such as Atlanta.
false

30. In 1963 the United States Supreme Court declared the Georgia county-unit system unconstitutional.
true

31. The current Georgia constitution was implemented in _______.
1983

32. The Georgia Constitution can be amended in a two-step process. The first step is the proposal of an amendment by 2/3’s of both houses of the General Assembly.
true

33. The second step is ratification (approval) by 2/3’s of the electorate voting on the proposed amendment.
false

34. The Governor of Georgia can veto a constitutional amendment.
false

35. In Georgia voters can get an issue on the ballot through the initiative process.
false

36. The majority of proposed constitutional amendments considered by state legislatures are approved for a vote by the people of that state.
true

37. The presiding officer of the Georgia House of Representatives is called the ______.
speaker

38. The Leader of the Georgia Senate is _____________________.
the lt. gov of the state

39. The Georgia General Assembly meets every other year.
false

40. The Georgia General Assembly is limited to a ________ day session.
40

41. There are no age or residency requirements for election to the Georgia General Assembly other than being a registered voter.
false

42. The Governor may call the Georgia General Assembly into special session.
true

43. If the Georgia legislature wished to recognize the outstanding accomplishments of an individual or an organization, the General Assembly would pass a _______________ describing their achievements.
resolution

44. Only members of the General Assembly may introduce legislation.
true

45. The Georgia Constitution requires that legislation dealing with public revenues be first introduced in the Senate, and then later in the House.
false

46. Bills in the Georgia General Assembly are constitutionally restricted to one purpose.
true

47. The legislature may approve tax legislation by a simple majority vote of both houses of the legislature.
false

48. A 2/3’s vote of both houses of the General Assembly is required to override the Governor’s veto of legislation.
true

49. The Georgia Constitution requires the Governor to prepare the state’s budget and submit it to the legislature.
true

50. Georgia voters elect more officials who serve in the Georgia executive branch than is the case in the executive branch at the federal level.
true

51. The Governor of Georgia can only serve two consecutive terms.
true

52. Other statewide elected officials (e.g., Agriculture Commissioner, Insurance Commissioner) are limited to two consecutive terms.
false

53. As with the federal government, Georgia’s fiscal year begins on October 1st each year.
false

54. If a bill is passed by the General Assembly and the Governor takes no action (i.e., neither signs nor vetoes it), the bill automatically dies.
false

55. The Georgia Governor may exercise power over college-level education in the state by serving on the Board of Regents.
false

56. In Georgia the __________________________ regulates telephone services and utilities such as natural gas and electricity.
public service commission

57. There are no constitutional qualifications to be a judge in Georgia.
false

58. Members of the Georgia Supreme Court, like the United States Supreme Court, serve life terms.
false

59. Traffic violation cases (e.g., a speeding ticket) are tried in Superior Court.
false

60. The Georgia Supreme Court is required by the state constitution to grant the request of a Georgia resident for an appeal of their conviction in a Superior Court felony case.
false

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