b. Inhalation of microbes in the air.
c. Hematogenous spread from a primary infection elsewhere in the body.
• PN-2: Patients over 65 screened for pneumococcal vaccination and administration before discharge, if indicated
• PN-3a: Blood cultures performed within 24 hours before or 24 hours after hospital arrival for patients who were transferred or admitted to the ICU within 24 hours of hospital arrival.
• PN-3b: Blood cultures performed in the ED before initial antibiotic received in hospital
• PN-4: Adult smoking-cessation advice and counseling provided
• PN-5: Median antibiotic timing, with goal of less than six hours from arrival at the hospital
• PN-6A Initial antibiotic selection for CAP in immunocompetent patients – ICU patients
• PN-6B Initial antibiotic selection for CAP in immunocompetent patients – non-ICU patients
• PN-7: Influenza vaccination
• Physical examination,
• Test for TB infection (TB skin test or TB blood test),
• Chest radiograph (X-ray), and
• Appropriate laboratory tests; acid fast sputum culture
b. Promoting adherence to treatment regimen (may last up to 9 -12 months). Importance of compliance with medication regime to avoid resistant organisms and spread of organisms outside the lungs to other body tissues. Medications should be taken on an empty stomach for better absorption. She should be taught the side effects of the medications and foods to avoid eating (tyramine and histamine containing items). Avoid alcohol because of high potential for hepatotoxic effects with medications.
c. Promote activity and good nutrition to maintain a healthy immune system.
d. Prevent transmission of TB to others. Cover mouth and nose when coughing. Dispose of tissues appropriately. Good hand hygiene.