Physiological changes to the body

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The body’s energy systems can be improved and adapted. Training can bring about physiological changes to the body which enable us to improve the energy systems therefore the systems can create more ATP for movement. The adaptations which occur affect the systems in different ways depending upon what training is being done. The factors which affect the type of adaptations which occur are the four main principles of training; specificity, progression, overload and reversibility. This principle stats that you’re training must be specific to what you are wanting to improve.

For example if you want to improve you aerobic system you should do aerobic training. Your training should be relevant to what you want to work and improve. Overload training is ‘an exercise overload specific to the activity must be applied to enhance physiological improvement and bring about a training response’ (McArdle et al, 1996). This principle is based on the idea that you exercise at a higher intensity than you normally would. Overload is doing more than the amount your body is used to. This is closely related to overload. When exercising you increase the overload over a time.

During a training program, training three times a week your improvement will slow after about four weeks therefore your training must become harder. To aid you in the training progress you need to increase either the frequency of your session, the intensity of your session or the amount of time you do the session for. Increasing any of these three will be progressive for your training. Increasing just one of the three will be making you train harder you needn’t increase all of them. When a person doesn’t train the persons fitness levels will decrease.

‘After only two weeks there is a significant reduction in exercise capacity and metabolic capacity’ (Lecture Notes, 2005), so working on this basis “If you don’t use it, you lose it”. Exercise has a very positive effect on the cardiovascular system. When an athlete starts to run greater distances more often they will gradually become fitter and because of this changes begin to occur. Exercise firstly affects the cardiovascular system by increasing the body’s heart rate, therefore increasing the amount of blood that is being pumped around the body.

If athlete did aerobic endurance training every other day for 30 minutes working at 70% of their maximum effort then a number of changes would begin to occur; Cardiac Hypertrophy Occurs ‘Cardiac Hypertrophy is characterised by a larger ventricle wall and a thicker myocardium’ (Wesson et al, 2001). Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The athlete’s heart is able to pump more blood to the working muscles more effectively. Increase in Blood Vessels Veins: The supply of blood vessels to the heart will increase therefore the blood pressure decreases and this improves the functioning of the heart.

Effect on Athlete’s Performance: Deoxygenated blood will be able to become oxygenated quicker and more quickly so the working muscles will be supplied with oxygen quicker. Capillaries: The capillaries increase in size allowing blood to travel along them. New capillaries are developed which helps with the extraction of oxygen. The network of capillaries in a muscle increase therefore this increases the supply of blood, oxygen and the nutrients to the working muscle. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: Deoxygenated blood will be able to become oxygenated quicker and more quickly so the working muscles will be supplied with oxygen quicker.

Arteries: The supply of blood vessels to the heart will increase therefore in turn blood pressure will decrease and the artery walls will become thicker. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: As the artery walls are thicker they are then able to with stand blood at a higher pressure as it is pumped at a stronger rate, this means as the athlete works harder during exercise the arteries can with stand this higher rate. Increase in haemoglobin There is an increase in the amount of red blood cells resulting in the volume of oxygen haemoglobin can carry increases.

Effect on Athlete’s Performance: As there is more haemoglobin more oxygen can be transported to the working muscles, resulting in the athlete being able to work for longer without fatigue. Lung Capacity The lungs increase in size therefore they can take in a larger amount of oxygen. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: As the lung capacity is bigger it increases the amount of oxygen the body can intake and increase the amount of carbon dioxide and waste products the body can remove therefore the athlete can work for longer without being affected by fatigue.

Decrease in Resting Heart Rate The athlete’s heart rate decreases, this is known as bradycardia. This means that the time it takes for the heart to return to its resting rate after exercise is quicker. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The athlete will be able to exercise for longer periods of time as you will not reach your maximum heart rate as you normally would. More blood gets pumped per beat meaning more oxygen gets transported around the body. Faster Venous Return More blood is able to be pumped back to the heart at a much quicker rate.

Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The body is able to get rid of the carbon dioxide and other waste products quicker therefore reducing the effects of lactic acid that make the athlete feel fatigue. Cardiovascular Adaptations due to Strength Training Strength training is usually done through weight or resistance training methods. Strength training means that the athlete will be working the anaerobic system. For an athlete to improve their strength, the athlete must work at a percentage of their maximum.

If an athlete did strength training every other day frequently cardiovascular adaptations would begin to occur, these are; Increases the size of heart muscle ‘Cardiac Hypertrophy is characterised by a larger ventricle wall and a thicker myocardium’ (Wesson et al, 2001). Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The athlete’s heart is able to pump more blood to the working muscles more effectively. This occurs because the training strengthens the muscles up as when the body is lifting weights, the muscles break and have slight tears in them because of the explosive power.

When the muscles are rested after the strenuous activity they then reform and become much stronger than before. Therefore, the more weights you do more often, the stronger the athlete will become. Also the greater size of the muscle means more muscle fibres. Strength training improves the fast twitch muscle fibres as they become stronger. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The athlete would become stronger and faster. The athlete would have a greater supply of energy enabling them to exercise for longer periods of time.

Increase the thickness of the muscle fibre As the muscle fibres are bigger in size this results in the muscle being able to generate a bigger force as the fibre can make bigger contractions. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: As the athlete is able to generate bigger force the athlete is going to be stronger therefore the athlete will be able to beat opponents. Respiratory Adaptations to endurance. When endurance training is done adaptations not only occur to the cardiovascular system but to the respiratory system as well. Faster Gaseous Exchange

Gaseous exchange becomes faster and more oxygen is exchanged into the blood cell and more Carbon dioxide is exchanged in the alveoli. Effect on performance: An increase of oxygen means it can be provided to the working muscles faster meaning muscle contractions can occur and it also helps to faster prevent a build up of lactic acid. Increase in Oxygen intake More oxygen is available to be used by the body during exercise. Effect on performance: Helps to delay the build up of lactic acid and also allows the body to perform for longer. Respiration Respiration is more efficient therefore the breathing rate is reduced.

Effect on performance: The removal of waste products happens quicker and the athlete is able to recover from exercise quicker. Increase in Lung Size The lungs increase in size therefore they can take in a larger amount of oxygen. Effect on performance: As the athlete can take in more oxygen the body is able to work for longer without fatigue. Stronger Diaphragm The diaphragm becomes stronger therefore more oxygen can be taken in and carbon dioxide can be exhaled quicker. Effect on performance: As the diaphragm is more efficient the body can inhale and exhale quicker therefore the body can work for longer without fatigue.

Increase in Tidal Volumes Tidal volume increases as the lungs are larger and can intake more oxygen. Effect on performance: As the athlete can take in more oxygen the body is able to work for longer without fatigue. Faster removal of Carbon Dioxide As the body can remove more carbon dioxide from the body there is less of a build up of waste products which cause fatigue. Effect on performance: As waste products can be removed quicker the athlete can work for longer without being affected by fatigue. Neuromuscular adaptations to endurance Increase in myoglobin capacity

Doing an activity which puts more oxygen into the body means the body has to adapt to take on more oxygen. Effect on performance: The more oxygen the body can take on and store in the muscles means the performer can work for longer without fatigue. Increase in Haemoglobin Capacity Doing an activity which puts more oxygen into the body means the body has to adapt to transport more oxygen around the body, therefore haemoglobin numbers increase. Effect on performance: The more oxygen the body can take on and transport in the muscles means the performer can work for longer without fatigue.

Calcium As the body exercises the bodies ability to tolerate lactic acid improves, this is important as lactic acid accumulates it decreases the pH levels of the blood, making it more acidic which effects the release of calcium. Without calcium being released muscular contraction could not take place as, calcium ions enable the sliding filament theory to occur which causes muscular contraction. Effect on performance: If the body is less affected by lactic acid then the performer can work for longer without being effected by fatigue which the release of calcium will help to prevent.

Hydrogen If you train the lactic acid system to become more effective and make the body have a higher tolerance level to lactic acid the body will become less effected by hydrogen. Effect on performance: If the body is less affected by hydrogen then the performer can work for longer without being effected by pain which hydrogen causes. Neuromuscular adaptations to strength training Sliding Filament Theory The muscle fibres become stronger therefore muscle contractions become more effective.

Effect on performance: Performance becomes more effective for a sprinter as Sliding Filament Theory releases calcium more effectively so contractions are better and more powerful. Muscles This occurs because the training strengthens the muscles up as when the body is lifting weights, the muscles break and have slight tears in them because of the explosive power. When the muscles are rested after the strenuous activity they then reform and become much stronger than before. Therefore, the more weights you do more often, the stronger the athlete will become. Also the greater size of the muscle means more muscle fibres.

Strength training improves the fast twitch muscle fibres as they become stronger. Effect on Athlete’s Performance: The athlete would become stronger and faster. The athlete would have a greater supply of energy enabling them to exercise for longer periods of time. Central Nervous System As the body exercises more the body’s ability to replenishment of acetylcholine back into the synapse required in order to produce energy. Effect on performance: As the body can produce acetylcholine the performer is able to produce more energy therefore they can work for longer. Buffering Training will produce lactic acid and buffering will clear it.

Effect on performance: Buffering will clear the lactic acid as much as it can meaning performance will be good until no more buffering can occur. But as more training is done the performer can work for longer. Increased ability to store glycogen, ATP and CP. In storing a greater amount of glycogen, ATP and CP the body’s energy systems will be able to work more efficiently. Effect on Athlete’s performance: The athlete will be able to generate energy quicker and therefore will be able to work for longer periods of time which result in the athlete’s performance improving as they can work longer without fatigue.

Increase in glycol tic enzymes An increase in the quantity and activity enzymes that control the anaerobic phase of glycolisis means that reactions which must occur to produce energy can occur much quicker. Effect on Athlete’s performance: The athlete can work for longer as there are more enzymes to keep the production of energy going. Increase in Lactate tolerance An increase in the tolerance for lactic acid means the athlete will not feel the pain which lactic acid can make as early.

Effect on Athlete’s performance: If the body is less affected by lactic acid then the performer can work for longer without being effected by fatigue which the release of calcium will help to prevent. Effects of De-training on the Respiratory System The reversibility of training. If a person stops training then, over a period of time, the body reverts back to its pre-training state. When a person goes into a period of rest it affects the bodies systems. Stroke Volume decreases. Stroke volume decreases as the athlete cannot breathe faster enough in order to get oxygen delivered to the tissues.

This effects the respiratory. Effect on performance: Muscles have less oxygen being delivered to them to allow contractions to take place. Decrease in Lung Capacity The lung capacity decreases as they haven’t been used as often as they were. This effects the Respiratory System. Effect on performance: As the lung capacity has decreased there is a lower oxygen intake so in turn the muscles will to receive less oxygen to create muscle contraction. Decrease in athlete’s VO2 Max The athlete’s VO2 max decreases as the body isn’t as fit as it was and cannot intake the same amount of oxygen for the body to use.

This effects the Respiratory system. Effect on performance: As there is a lower oxygen intake so in turn the muscles will to receive less oxygen to create muscle contraction. Decrease in Tidal Volume Tidal volume will decrease meaning that during exercise the lungs cannot in take as much oxygen. This effects the respiratory system. Effect on performance: As a result of less oxygen being taken in less oxygen reaches the muscles for muscular contraction to occur. Also there is less carbon dioxide being expired which causes fatigue. Effects of De-training on the Cardiovascular System.

Decrease in Cardiac Output As cardiac output decreases this means less blood is being pumped around the body. This affects the cardiovascular system as there is a decrease in the maximum cardiac output. Effect on performance: As there is less blood being pumped around the body this means that less oxygen is being transported to the muscles therefore muscle contractions don’t occur. Effect on performance: The athlete is able to reach their maximum heart rate easier to achieve but as a result the athlete cannot work for the same amount of time as they used to. Increase in Blood Pressure

Effect on performance: The athlete is able to reach their maximum heart rate easier to achieve but as a result the athlete cannot work for the same amount of time as they used to. Increase in Resting Heart Rate Effect on performance: The athlete is able to reach their maximum heart rate easier to achieve but as a result the athlete cannot work for the same amount of time as they used to. Effects of De-training on the neuromuscular system. Decrease in CP, Glycogen and ATP stores in muscles. Effect on performance: Less CP means that the muscles cannot create ATP fast enough for the body therefore less energy is made for the body to use.

As there is less glycogen to create energy the lactic acid system is not as effective and in turn there is a lactic acid build up in the muscle which causes fatigue. As there is less ATP available for muscle contraction fewer muscular contractions occur and therefore fatigue sets in quicker. This affects the neuromuscular system. Muscle Atrophy Atrophy occurs in the muscles as they are not being used. This effects the neuromuscular system. Effect on performance: As the muscles aren’t as strong or big as they were less power can be produced for muscle contraction. Recovery Time from Exercise

The time it takes the athlete to recover from exercise is longer. Effect on performance: If the athlete takes longer to recover, the athlete will need more breaks therefore overall performance will decrease. Decrease in Haemoglobin numbers In the blood there is a decrease in the number of haemoglobin which means the amount of oxygen that can be transported is lower. This effects the cardiovascular system. Effect on performance: As there is less haemoglobin to transport oxygen to the working muscles, muscular contractions don’t occur as fast therefore causing fatigue faster

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