Pharmacology Worksheet/Study Guide Answers

Define “pharmacology”
The study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties and effects on living organisms.

What is the difference in: chemical name, generic name, and brand name of a drug?
Chemical Name- identifies the actual chemical structure of the drug
Generic Name- the name given to the drug when it becomes commercially available
Brand name- the name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company

most common oral dose form, granulated drug that has been compressed into a solid hard disk.

a dose form in which a powdered or liquid drug is contained in a gelatin shell. The shell dissolves in the stomach and releases its contents.

used for local or systemic effects and used for their local effects in the treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Allows high concentrations to be deposited into the respiratory mucosa and exert action by producing bronchodilation or reducing inflammation.

dose form shaped for insertion into an orifice such as the rectum, vagina or urethra. The suppository dissolves and releases the drug.

dose form in which one or more drugs are dissolved in a liquid carrier. (orally or parenteral)

a dose form in which one or more drugs in small particles are suspended in a liquid carrier. Administered orally and shaken before administration.

Transdermal Patch-
a dose form that permits a drug to be applied on the skin surface, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream.

Suspension should never be administered how?

Transdermal patches can cause a problem in MRI: Why?
Some have aluminum metals in the backing of the patches can warm up and overheat during the MRI exam.

List drugs commonly found on an emergency cart and their indication for use.
A. Atropine-Bradycardia
B. Benadryl-Allergic Reaction
C. Cordarone- Arrhythmias
D. Decadron- Allergic Reaction
E. Dilantin-Seizures
F. Epinepherine- Cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis
G. Isoptin-Arrhythmias
H. Lasix- Edema
I. Xylocaine- Arrhythmias

What is the difference in Type I and Type II diabetes? What are some medications used?
Type I- absence of insulin-give insulin
Type II- insulin deficiency and insulin resistant-Micronase, Glucotrol, Amaryl, Glucophage, Actos and Januvia

Recommendations are that Metformin to be ______ before the use of radiographic contrast agents.
temporarily discontinued

Define GERD.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease is caused by the reflux of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.

Define “angina pectoris”.
Severe constricting pain in the chest, often radiating to the shoulder and down the arm, caused by ischemia (obstruction of blood supply) of the heart muscle, usually a result of coronary disease

Laxatives are frequently used in radiology for what purpose?
To prepare patients for both GI procedures and urinary tract procedures. Produces a loose, watery stool before the procedure.

Define pharmacokinetics.
Study of the metabolism and action of drugs with particular emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution in the body, and method of excretion

What are the four basic factors which influence the movement of a drug?

the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood

drug movement from the blood to various tissues and organs of the body

chemical alteration of various substances (drugs). Involves the liver.

the movement of drugs out of the body. Kidney is most important organ of excretion

What are the 5 Rights of drug administration; how do you define each right?
A. Right drug-check the name
B. Right amount- measure carefully and accurately
C. Right patient- check patient’s armband and ask their name and DOB
D. Right time- specified by physician or practitioner at a designated time
E. Right route- physician will specify how it is administered

What are the 3 parts of a syringe?
A. Plunger
B. Barrel
C. Tip

What are the 3 parts of a needle?
A. Bevel
B. Cannula or shaft
C. Hub

defie parenteral-
Administered by injection or by a route other than the GI tract.

sealed glass container designed to hold a single dose of a drug and is intended for use only once. Clear glass shape with a scored neck that is weakened so it can be broken. Must use a filter needle when drawing the medication.

small glass bottle with a sealed rubber cap.

The smaller the diameter of a needle, the _____ the gauge number will be.

What is the proper needle angle of a subcutaneous injection versus an intramuscular injection and why?
Subcutaneous-45-degree angle
Intramuscular- 90-degree angle Has to go deep to penetrate the muscle layer (Deeper)

What do you do for an infiltration versus an extravasation when a corrosive drug infiltrates the tissue?
Infiltration- use a warm compress rather than cold and notify the physician and pharmacist

Extravasation- use a cold compress

With a drip infusion IV, how many drops per minute is an acceptable flow rate?
10 to 20 drops per minute

With an intravenous or drip infusion, how high should the IV pole be hung above the site?
18 to 24 inches above the site

What is “gtt” an abbreviation for?

What is “IM” an abbreviation for?

What is “tid” an abbreviation for?
Three times a day

What is “hs” an abbreviation for?
At bedtime

What is “prn” an abbreviation for?
As needed

What is “bid” an abbreviation for?
Twice a day

What is a “PDR” used for?
Physicians Desk Reference- A reference that lists drugs by both generic and trade names found in the radiology department.

Angina Pectoris A spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia. Bronchodilator a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Please remember this is about 1/3 of the pharmacology exam. It may be beneficial for you to practice calculations and/or review a nursing math book to help prep. You may not have used all the calculation methods recently. Questions may …

What is a Half-Life? is the amount of time it takes after absorption for 1/2 of the drugs concentration to be eliminated. How does a half-life impact drug dosing? if the drugs 1/2 life is 36 hours they will only …

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Telephone prescription from provider. The Nurse: Reads the prescription back to the provider. Seizure disorder. Patient should: Keep a seizure chart. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

Bioavailability The ability of a drug to reach the systemic circulation from its site of administration. Absorption The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood. *Rate-determines how soon effects will begin *Amount-Determine how intense effects …

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