Pharmacology Week 5: Upper Respiratory

Antitussives – Opioids are also known as?
codeine and hydrocodone

What is the expected action of codeine?
Suppresses cough through its action on the central nervous system.

What is the therapeutic use for codeine?
For a chronic nonproductive cough

What are the adverse effects of codeine?
CNS effects (dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, and respiratory depression), Potential for abuse

Patient’s shouldn’t be doing what when taking codeine?
Should not be driving

When a patient is taking codeine and wants to change positions how should they change positions?
Slowly

Antitussives – Nonopioids are also known as?
dextromethorphan (Robitussin) or diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

What is dextromethorphan (Robitussin) expected action?
Supresses cough through its action on the CNS. Although not an opioid, it is derived from opioids.

What is dextromethorphan (Robitussin) therapeutic use?
Cough suppression

What are the complications that can occur from dextromethorphan (Robitussin)?
Some mild nausea, dizziness, and SEDATION may occur.

dextromethorphan (Robitussin) can cause high fever when used within?
2 weeks of MAOI antidepressants

MAOI can cause?
A hypertensive crisis or hypothermia (fever)

Expectorants are also known as?
guaifenesin (Mucinex)

What is the expected action of guaifenesin (Mucinex)?
Promotes increased cough production through increasing mucous secretion. These actions allow clients to decrease chest congestion by coughing out secretions.

What is the therapeutic use for guaifenesin (Mucinex)?
Treating symptoms of colds, allergic or nonallergic rhinitis, or for cough.

What are the adverse effects of guaifenesin (Mucinex)?
GI upset, drowsiness, dizziness, and allergic reaction (rash).

What should be increased when taking guaifenesin (Mucinex)?
Fluid intake, in order to promote liquefying secretions.

Should children be taking guaifenesin (Mucinex)?
No

Mucolytic are also known as?
acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote)

What is the expected action of acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote)?
Enhances the flow of secretions in the respiratory passages.

What is the therapeutic use for acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote)?
Used in clients who have acute and chronic pulmonary disorders exacerbated by large amounts of secretions. Also used in client with cystic fibrosis and the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning.

What are the adverse effects of acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote)?
Aspiration and bronchospasm when administered orally

What should we advise clients about taking acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote)?
Has an odor and smells like rotten eggs

We shouldn’t give acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote) to patient’s who?
Have active asthma attacks, and patients who are at risk for aspiration, as well as patient’s at risk for bleeding, for example don’t give to a patient with a hx of GI bleeds.

Decongestants are also known as?
phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) or pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)

What is the expected action for phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)?
Stimulate alpha 1 adrenergic receptors, causing reduction in the inflammation of the nasal membranes

What is the therapeutic use for phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)?
Treats allergic or nonallergic rhinitis by relieving nasal stuffiness, acts as a decongestant for clients who have sinusitis and the common cold.

What are the adverse effects of phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)?
Rebound congestion secondary to prolonged use of topical agents. CNS stimulation (agitation, nervousness, and uneasiness), vasoconstriction.

Why isn’t Sudafed over the counter anymore?
Because people used it to make meth.

When the patient is ready to stop phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) how should they?
They should taper the dose

Nasal Glucocorticoids are also known as?
mometasone (Nasonex)

What is the expected action of mometasone (Nasonex)?
Decrease inflammation associated with allergic rhinitis. They are the first line of treatment for nasal congestion.

What is the therapeutic use for mometasone (Nasonex)?
To reduce the effects of allergic rhinitis including sneezing, nasal itching, and runny nose.

What are the adverse effects of mometasone (Nasonex)?
Sore throat, nosebleed, headache, and burning in the nose

If adverse effects occur while taking mometasone (Nasonex) what should the client do?
Contact their provider.

How should you stop mometasone (Nasonex)?
Taper the dose and don’t take for a long time.

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What is Viral Rhinitis and what are its symptoms? The Common Cold – virus invades mucosa of upper respiratory tract sneezing, coughing, sore throat, runny nose, congestion What is Allergic Rhinitis and how is it different than Viral Rhinitis? Airborne …

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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is having difficulty mobilizing thick respiratory secretions. which of the following drugs should the health care professional expect to administer? -Acetylcysteine A health care professional is advising a patient about …

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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is having difficulty mobilizing thick respiratory secretions. which of the following drugs should the health care professional expect to administer? -Acetylcysteine A health care professional is monitoring plasma drug levels …

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