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First recorded reference to pharmacology was written by:
-SAMUEL DALE in 1693.
-found in text entitled PHARMACOLOGIA SEN MANUDUCTO and MATERIAM MEDICUM.

Father of American Pharmacology:
-JOHN JACOB ABEL
-founded 1st pharmacology department in US at University of Michigan in 1980.

Factors affecting drug response:
1. age
2. sex
3. body mass
4. health status
5. genetics
6. drug to drug interaction
7. diet
8. biorhythmic cycle
9. drug tolerance

Routes of medication administration:
1. enteral
a. by mouth
*tabs, capsules, or liquid
*sublingual
*buccal
b. via nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube
2. topical/mucous membranes
*dermatologic preparations
*instillations and irrigations
*inhalations
*transdermal
*opthalmic
*otic
*vaginal
*rectal
3. parenteral
*ID
*SQ
*IM
*IV

PHARMACOLOGY
-derived from 2 greek words: pharmakon (medicine) and logos (study).
-study of medicine.

Therapeutics
-branch of medicine concerned with the prevention of disease and treatment of suffering.

Pharmacotherapy/pharmacotherapeutics
-application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention and the treatment of suffering.

BIOLOGICS
-substances that produce biologic response within the body
-they are synthesized by cells of human body, animal cells, or microorganisms.
-are agents naturally produced in animal cells, by microorganisms, or by the body itself.
-ex. hormones, monoclonal antibodies, natural blood products and components, interferons, and vaccines.
-used to treat wide variety of illnesses and conditions.

THERAPEUTIC ACTION
– desirable response

ADVERSE REACTION
-undesirable response

ALLERGIC REACTION
-acquired hyper response of body defenses to a foriegn substance (allergen).

ANAPHYLAXIS
-acute allergic response to anantigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
-should not be combined with other drugs that is not compatible
ex. pregnancy

SIDE-EFFECTS
-annoying non-therapeutic effect of a drug.

THERAPEUTIC CLASSIFICATION
-method for organizing drugs on the basis of their clinical usefulness.
-ex. antihypertensive medications

PHARMACOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION
-method for organizing drugs on the basis of their mechanism of action.
-ex. beta blockers

CHEMICAL NAME
-strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

GENERIC NAME
-nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government.

TRADE NAME
-proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer
-also called the brand name or product name.

BIOAVAILABILITY
-ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its largest tissues.
-amount of drug to cause therapeutic action.

FORMULARY LIST OF DRUGS
-1st standard commonly used by pharmacists
-“list of drugs” and drug recipes
-differs

NEGATIVE FORMULARY LIST
-list of trade-name drugs that pharmacists may not dispense as generic-drug substitutes.
-differs

ADDICTION
-the continued used of a substance despite its negative health and social consequences.

DEPENDENCE
-strong physiological or psychological need for a substance.

CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE
-in the US, a drug whose use is restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.
controlled by DEA
-in Canada, a drug subject to guidelines outlines in the Canadian Narcotic Control Act.

TERATOGENIC DRUG CLASSIFICATION
-can cause fetal damage

PHARMACOKINETICS
-study of how drugs are handled by the body.
-the study of drug movement throughout the body.

4 COMPONENTS OF PHARMACOKINETICS
1. absorption
2. distribution
3. metabolism
4. excretion

BIOTRANSFORMATION
– metabolism of medications.

AFFINITY
-a chemical attraction that impels certain molecules to unite with others to form complexes.

DRUG PROTEIN COMPLEX
-drug that has bound reversibly to a plasma protein, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to body tissues.

CONJUGATES
-side chains that, during metabolism, make drugs more water soluble and more easily excreted by the kidney.

THERAPEUTIC LEVEL
-“therapeutic range”???
– plasma drug concentration between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration.

PLASMA CONCENTRATION
-concentration of medication in target tissue is often impossible to measure, so it must be measured in plasma.

PLASMA HALF LIFE OF DRUG
-(t1/2)
-the length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by half after administration.

LOADING DOSE
-comparatively large dose given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain the therapeutic effect of a drug.

MAINTENANCE DOSE
-dose that keeps the plasma concentration continuously in the therapeutic range.

LETHAL DOSE
-amount of drug that kill

TOXICITY
-excess therapeutic level

THERAPEUTIC INDEX
-the ratio a drug’s LD50 to its ED50.

POTENCY
-the strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose.

EFFICACY
-the ability of a drug to produce a desired response.

AGONIST
-drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response.

ANTAGONIST
-drug that blocks the response of another drug.

ANTIDOTE
-agent that neutralizes drug/ substance.

RECEPTOR
-the structural component of a cell to which a drug binds in a dose-reated manner to produce a response.

PHARMACOGENETICS
-area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.

MEDICATION RECONCILIATION
-the process of keeping track of patients’ medications as their care proceeds from one health care provider to another.

POLY-PHARMACY
-the taking of multiple drugs concurrently.

RECEPTORS IN HUMAN BODY AND ITS FUNCTION
-function: to bind endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors
1. voltage-gated channel
2. chemical gated channels
3. G-protein-linked channel

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We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacology The study of medicine Therapeutics The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention of disease and treatment of …

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