Pharmacology (week 1)

First recorded reference to pharmacology was written by:
-SAMUEL DALE in 1693.
-found in text entitled PHARMACOLOGIA SEN MANUDUCTO and MATERIAM MEDICUM.

Father of American Pharmacology:
-JOHN JACOB ABEL
-founded 1st pharmacology department in US at University of Michigan in 1980.

Factors affecting drug response:
1. age
2. sex
3. body mass
4. health status
5. genetics
6. drug to drug interaction
7. diet
8. biorhythmic cycle
9. drug tolerance

Routes of medication administration:
1. enteral
a. by mouth
*tabs, capsules, or liquid
*sublingual
*buccal
b. via nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube
2. topical/mucous membranes
*dermatologic preparations
*instillations and irrigations
*inhalations
*transdermal
*opthalmic
*otic
*vaginal
*rectal
3. parenteral
*ID
*SQ
*IM
*IV

PHARMACOLOGY
-derived from 2 greek words: pharmakon (medicine) and logos (study).
-study of medicine.

Therapeutics
-branch of medicine concerned with the prevention of disease and treatment of suffering.

Pharmacotherapy/pharmacotherapeutics
-application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention and the treatment of suffering.

BIOLOGICS
-substances that produce biologic response within the body
-they are synthesized by cells of human body, animal cells, or microorganisms.
-are agents naturally produced in animal cells, by microorganisms, or by the body itself.
-ex. hormones, monoclonal antibodies, natural blood products and components, interferons, and vaccines.
-used to treat wide variety of illnesses and conditions.

THERAPEUTIC ACTION
– desirable response

ADVERSE REACTION
-undesirable response

ALLERGIC REACTION
-acquired hyper response of body defenses to a foriegn substance (allergen).

ANAPHYLAXIS
-acute allergic response to anantigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
-should not be combined with other drugs that is not compatible
ex. pregnancy

SIDE-EFFECTS
-annoying non-therapeutic effect of a drug.

THERAPEUTIC CLASSIFICATION
-method for organizing drugs on the basis of their clinical usefulness.
-ex. antihypertensive medications

PHARMACOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION
-method for organizing drugs on the basis of their mechanism of action.
-ex. beta blockers

CHEMICAL NAME
-strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

GENERIC NAME
-nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government.

TRADE NAME
-proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer
-also called the brand name or product name.

BIOAVAILABILITY
-ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its largest tissues.
-amount of drug to cause therapeutic action.

FORMULARY LIST OF DRUGS
-1st standard commonly used by pharmacists
-“list of drugs” and drug recipes
-differs

NEGATIVE FORMULARY LIST
-list of trade-name drugs that pharmacists may not dispense as generic-drug substitutes.
-differs

ADDICTION
-the continued used of a substance despite its negative health and social consequences.

DEPENDENCE
-strong physiological or psychological need for a substance.

CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE
-in the US, a drug whose use is restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.
controlled by DEA
-in Canada, a drug subject to guidelines outlines in the Canadian Narcotic Control Act.

TERATOGENIC DRUG CLASSIFICATION
-can cause fetal damage

PHARMACOKINETICS
-study of how drugs are handled by the body.
-the study of drug movement throughout the body.

4 COMPONENTS OF PHARMACOKINETICS
1. absorption
2. distribution
3. metabolism
4. excretion

BIOTRANSFORMATION
– metabolism of medications.

AFFINITY
-a chemical attraction that impels certain molecules to unite with others to form complexes.

DRUG PROTEIN COMPLEX
-drug that has bound reversibly to a plasma protein, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to body tissues.

CONJUGATES
-side chains that, during metabolism, make drugs more water soluble and more easily excreted by the kidney.

THERAPEUTIC LEVEL
-“therapeutic range”???
– plasma drug concentration between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration.

PLASMA CONCENTRATION
-concentration of medication in target tissue is often impossible to measure, so it must be measured in plasma.

PLASMA HALF LIFE OF DRUG
-(t1/2)
-the length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by half after administration.

LOADING DOSE
-comparatively large dose given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain the therapeutic effect of a drug.

MAINTENANCE DOSE
-dose that keeps the plasma concentration continuously in the therapeutic range.

LETHAL DOSE
-amount of drug that kill

TOXICITY
-excess therapeutic level

THERAPEUTIC INDEX
-the ratio a drug’s LD50 to its ED50.

POTENCY
-the strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose.

EFFICACY
-the ability of a drug to produce a desired response.

AGONIST
-drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response.

ANTAGONIST
-drug that blocks the response of another drug.

ANTIDOTE
-agent that neutralizes drug/ substance.

RECEPTOR
-the structural component of a cell to which a drug binds in a dose-reated manner to produce a response.

PHARMACOGENETICS
-area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.

MEDICATION RECONCILIATION
-the process of keeping track of patients’ medications as their care proceeds from one health care provider to another.

POLY-PHARMACY
-the taking of multiple drugs concurrently.

RECEPTORS IN HUMAN BODY AND ITS FUNCTION
-function: to bind endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors
1. voltage-gated channel
2. chemical gated channels
3. G-protein-linked channel

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