Pharmacology Test 2 Chapter 27 Antilipemic Drugs

Lipoprotein
the combination of triglyceride or cholesterol with apolipoprotein

Very low density lipoprotein
produced by the liver, transports endogenous lipids to the cells

Low density lipoprotein
Bad cholesterol

High density lipoprotein
good cholesterol, responsible for recycling cholesterol

Coronary Heart Disease
the risk is greater for this for patients with 300 mg/dL of cholesterol than for patients with less than 200 mg/dL

Antilipemic drugs
drugs used to lower lipid levels, used as an adjunct to diet therapy

Antilipemic medications
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
Bile Acid Sequestrants
B vitamin niacin
Fibric acid derivatives
Cholesterol absorption inhibitor

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Statins

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Inhibit the chemical used by the liver to produce cholesterol

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Lowers the rate of cholesterol production

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors
First line drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors Adverse Effects
GI disturbances, rash, headache, muscle pain, elevations in liver enzymes or liver disease

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Interacts with oral anticoagulants, erythromycin, Azole antifungals, verapamil, diltiazem, HIV protease inhibitors, amiodarone, Grapefruit juice

Bile Acid Sequestrants
Questran, Colestid, Welchol

Bile Acid Sequestrants
Prevent resorption of bile acids from small intestines,

Bile Acid Sequestrants
Indicated for Type II hyperlipoproteinemia, relief of pruritus associated with partial biliary obstruction

Bile Acid Sequestrants
may be used with Statins

Bile Acid Sequestrants
Adverse effects-constipation, heartburn, nausea, belching, bloating

Niacin
Vitamin B3, lipid lowering properties require much higher doses than when used as a vitamin

Niacin
effective, inexpensive often used in combination with other lipid lowering drugs

Niacin
Thought to increase activity of lipase, which breaks down lipids, reduces the metabolism or catabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides

Niacin
effective in lowering triglyceride, total serum cholesterol, and LDL levels

Niacin
Increases HDL levels, effective in treatment of hyperlipidemias

Niacin
Adverse effects-flushing, pruritus, GI distress

Fibric Acid Derivatives
-fibrates -fibrozil

Fibric Acid Derivatives
activates lipase which breaks down cholesterol

Fibric Acid Derivatives
Adverse effects-abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, blurred vision, headache, gallstones, prolonged prothrombin time

Fibric Acid Derivatives
Interactions-Oral anticoagulants, Statins

Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
Zetia

Zetia
Inhibits absorption of cholesterol and related sterols from the small intestine

Zetia
Reduces total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels

Zetia
Increases HDL levels

Garlic
Used as an antispasmodic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, lipid reducer

Garlic
Adverse effects-dermatitis, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, antiplatelet activity

Flax
Used for atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, GI distress, menopausal symptoms

Flax
May cause diarrhea and allergic reaction

Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Used to reduce cholesterol, may cause rash, belching, allergic reactions

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Atorvastatin Calcium (lipitor): Side Effects constipation, decreased vitamins A,D, K, Abdominal pain, nausea, arthralgia, myopathy, nasopharyngitis, UTI Atorvastatin Calcium (lipitor): Indications Used to lower cholesterol levels, digitalis toxicity, biliary obstruction pruritus, and diarrhea, decrease risk of MI and stroke in …

amiodarone (Cordarone)/potassium channel blocker (antidysrhythmic) Treats: dysrythmias adverse effects: slow the heart rate resulting in bradycardia and hypotension, worsen dysrythmia monitoring: for dsyrthmias, older adults with heart failure for cardiac cardiac effects teaching: causes sun sensitivity, corneal deposits, visual disturbances, …

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