Pharmacology Principles and Applications (3rd Edition): Chapter 1

Administer
To give to or apply medication on a person

Adverse Reaction
Unintended, undesirable, and often unpredictable effect of a medication that cause pain, discomfort, or unwanted symptoms; more severe than a side effect

Anatomy
Branch of science that deals with the structure of organisms

Bioequivalence
State or property of having the same strength and availability for absorption in the body as the same dosage of another available source of that drug

Brand-name drug
Proprietary drug with a trademark

Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD)
Government agency that existed from 1968 to 1973 and had responsibilities for regulation of controlled substances

Clinical pharmacology
Study of drug effects in humans

Controlled substance
Medication that is controlled by the DEA because of its potential for abuse and misuse

Dangerous drug
Drug that can cause addiction or is detrimental to the body

Dispense
To give medications to a patient to be taken at a later time

Dosage
Regimen of administering individual doses of medication, expressed in quantity per unit of time

Dose
Exact amount of medication to be given or taken at one time

Drug abuse
Misuse or overuse of drugs in a manner that deviates from the prescribed manner, which could lead to physical or psychological dependence, usually by self-medication

Drug Addiction
Compulsive use of drugs or substances that results in physical, psychologic, or social harm

Drug dependence
Compulsion to take a drug, either continuously or periodically, to relieve a real or imagined physical or psychologic need

Drug efficacy
Ability of a drug to produce the desired chemical change in the body

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Agency in the Department of Justice with the legal responsibility to enforce the statutes of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Prevention Act of 1970

Drug purity
Quality or state of having the type and concentration of substances set forth by FDA standards for production of a drug

Drug quality
State or condition of ensuring that each time a medication is taken as ordered, it meets the same drug standard

Drug sample
Medication left by a manufacturer’s representative in a physician’s office to be given, not sold, to a patient with the main purpose of ensuring the patient can effectively take the medication

Drug standardization
Process in which a pharmaceutical preparation or chemical substance of know quantity, ingredients, and strength is the same quantity, ingredients, and strength in a comparable pharmaceutical preparation

Drug standards
Rules and regulations to assure consumers that they are receiving medications with therapeutic consistency

Drug strength or drug potency
Concentration of active ingredient(s) in a medicinal preparation

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Agency responsible for the safety, efficacy, and purity of drugs marketed in the USA

Generic drug
Drug not protected by the trademark but regulated by the FDA

Homeostasis
Equilibrium in the body that is maintained by the ever-changing feedback and regulation processes in response to e xternal or internal changes

Legend drug (a.k.a. prescription drug)
Drug that requires an order from a licensed health care provider for dispensing

Medication
A drug or substance used as medicine

Narcotic
Older term for a controlled drug that depresses the central nervous system to relieve pain and has the potential to cause habituation or addiction

National Formulary (NF)
List of officially recognized names of drugs that have an established usefulness

Over-the-counter (OTC) drug
Drug that does not require a prescription

Pathology
Study of the causes of disease

Pharmacology
Study of drugs, their uses, and their interactions with living systems

Physical dependence
Craving for drugs because of extended use; discontinuation of the drug often results in withdrawal symptoms

Physiology
Study of normal human body functions

Placebo
Medication with no pharmacologic or therapeutic effect that is used to satisfy a patient’s psychologic need for medication

Prescribe
To indicate, either in writing or orally, a medication to be given

Prescription
Written order for dispensing or administering medications

Psychotic drug dependence or habituation
Accustomization to a drug through frequent use or exposure or repeated administration of medications for the patient’s mental sense of well-being

Respondeat superior
Legal premise by which the employer is held responsible or liable for the wrongful actions of an employee that may cause injury or damage as long as the employee works within their scope of practice; literally means “Let the master answer”

Side effect
Mild or annoying but expected and fairly common undesirable response to a medication

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
Official guide prepared by a nation group of pharmaceutical professionals and issued every five years by the US government giving the approved formula and information on the preparation and dispensing of medications found in the US

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