Pharmacology Made Easy: Pain & Inflammation

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A health care professional should understand that naloxone can reverse the effects of an excessive dose of which of the following drugs?

A) Aspirin
B) Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
C) Morphine
D) Prednisone

ANS: C

Rationale:
Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, reverses the effects of morphine, an opioid analgesic. Health care professionals should monitor respirations and reassess patients after the effects of naloxone have diminished (20 to 40 min) for recurrence of the adverse effects of morphine.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who takes furosemide (Lasix) and is about to begin taking prednisone to treat inflammatory bowel disease. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following results of concurrent use of the two drugs?

A) Hypercalcemia
B) Hypoglycemia
C) Hypothermia
D) Hypokalemia

ANS: D

Rationale:
Prednisone, a glucocorticoid, can cause hypokalemia. The risk for this electrolyte imbalance increases with potassium-depleting diuretics, such as furosemide. Health care professionals should monitor potassium levels of patients who are taking both drugs or recommend the primary care provider prescribe a safer combination.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking celecoxib (Celebrex) to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse reactions?

A) Chest pain
B) Tinnitus
C) Constipation
D) Diaphoresis

ANS: A

Rationale:
Celebrex, a COX-2 inhibitor, can cause cardiovascular events. Patients should report chest pain, shortness of breath, headache, numbness, weakness or confusion. Primary care providers should prescribe the lowest effective dosage for the shortest time period possible.

A patient who takes low-dose aspirin to prevent cardiovascular events asks a health care professional about taking ibuprofen (Advil) to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The health care professional should respond with which of the following statements?

A) “Ibuprofen will increase the risk for salicylism.”
B) “Ibuprofen will reduce the antiplatelet effects of low-dose aspirin.”
C) “Low-dose aspirin will reduce the anti-inflammatory effects of ibuprofen.”
D) “Low-dose aspirin will reduce the analgesic effects of ibuprofen.”

ANS: B

Rationale:
Ibuprofen, an NSAID, reduces the antiplatelet effects of low-dose aspirin. Patients taking low-dose aspirin for its antiplatelet effects should not take ibuprofen.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking allopurinol (Zyloprim) to prevent hyperuricemia. The health care professional should advise the patient to report which of the following adverse effects? (Select all that apply.)

A) Palpitations
B) Sore throat
C) Vertigo
D) Bruising
E) Vision changes

ANS: B, C, D, E

Rationale:
B) Allopurinol, an antigout drug, can cause agranulocytosis. Health care professionals should monitor WBC counts, and tell patients to report fever or sore throat and avoid crowds or exposure to people who might have communicable diseases.
C) Allopurinol, an antigout drug, can cause drowsiness and vertigo. Patients should avoid activities that require mental alertness until they know how the drug will affect them. They should also report vertigo.
D) Allopurinol, an antigout drug, can cause thrombocytopenia. Health care professionals should monitor platelets and have patients report any bleeding or bruising.
E) Allopurinol, an antigout drug, can cause cataracts with extended use. People should report vision changes, such as cloudiness or halo around lights, and have eye examinations at recommended intervals.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is opioid-dependent and is about to begin taking butorphanol (Stadol). The health care professional should recognize the patient is at risk for developing a syndrome that causes which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

A) Bronchospasm
B) Vomiting
C) Peripheral edema
D) Abdominal cramps
E) Hypertension

ANS: B, D, E

Rationale:
B) Abstinence syndrome can cause nausea, vomiting, and anorexia.
D) Abstinence syndrome can cause abdominal cramps and anorexia.
E) Abstinence syndrome can cause hypertension, tremors, and fever.

A health care professional is caring for an older adult patient who is about to begin taking prednisone for long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects?

A) Pulmonary embolism
B) Hepatitis
C) Bone loss
D) Breast cancer

ANS: C

Rationale:
Prednisone, a glucocorticoid, can cause osteoporosis, especially with long-term use. Patients taking the drug should increase weight-bearing activity and report back pain. Health care professionals should monitor bone density.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is taking naloxone to treat morphine overdose. The health care professional should monitor for which of the following adverse effects? (Select all that apply.)

A) Tachypnea
B) Increased pain
C) Thrombophlebitis
D) Tachycardia
E) Hypertension

ANS: A, B, D, E

Rationale:
A) Naloxone treats respiratory depression, but it can cause hyperventilation.
B) Naloxone reverses the analgesic effects of opioids and can cause increased pain and discomfort.
D) Naloxone can increase heart rate.
E) Naloxone can cause hypertension.

A patient recovering from a total knee arthroplasty has been prescribed acetaminophen (Tylenol) for mild discomfort that does not require an opioid. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following early indications of acetaminophen overdose? (Select all that apply.)

A) Diaphoresis
B) Palpitations
C) Shortness of breath
D) Nausea
E) Diarrhea

ANS: A, D, E

Rationale:
A) Acetaminophen toxicity can cause diaphoresis, anorexia, and eventually, liver damage. Patients should follow the dosage guidelines on the labels of OTC drugs carefully to avoid overdose.
D) Acetaminophen toxicity can cause nausea, vomiting, and anorexia and can lead to liver damage.
E) Acetaminophen toxicity can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and eventually, liver damage.

A health care professional is caring for an older adult patient who is about to begin taking aspirin to treat an ankle sprain. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse reactions?

A) Polyuria
B) Bone pain
C) Weight gain
D) Infection

ANS: C

Rationale:
Aspirin can cause renal dysfunction, especially in older adults and patients who have pre-existing renal or liver dysfunction and heart failure. Patients should report reduced urine output, weight gain, edema, or bloating. Health care professionals should monitor BUN and creatinine values, and stop aspirin therapy for patients who develop signs of renal dysfunction.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking allopurinol (Zyloprim) to treat gout. The health care professional should monitor the patient for hypersensitivity syndrome, which causes which of the following clinical manifestations?

A) Fever
B) Muscle pain
C) Anxiety
D) Tremors

ANS: A

Rationale:
Allopurinol, an antigout drug, can cause hypersensitivity syndrome. Patients should report rash, itching, or fever, as hypersensitivity reactions can lead to renal or liver dysfunction. Patients who develop this type of reaction should stop taking the drug.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking butorphanol for pain control. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects?

A) Infection
B) Nausea
C) Tachycardia
D) Dizziness
E) Headache

ANS: B, D, E

Rationale:
Butorphanol, an opioid agonist-antagonist:
B) can cause nausea. Patients should lie down when feeling nauseated.
D) can cause dizziness and drowsiness. Patients should avoid activities that require alertness.
E) can cause headaches and increased intracranial pressure. Patients should report severe headaches.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking prednisone to treat systemic lupus erythematosus. When talking with the patient about the drug, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions? (Select all that apply.)

A) Reduce the dose during periods of stress.
B) Discontinue the drug gradually.
C) Report illness or infection.
D) Increase intake of calcium and vitamin D.
E) Monitor for signs of gastric bleeding.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Rationale:
B) Prednisone, a glucocorticoid, can suppress adrenal function. Patients should taper the dosage before discontinuing to allow for resumption of adrenal activity.
C) Patients can need higher doses of prednisone during illness or infection. Report signs of infection.
D) Prednisone, a glucocorticoid, can cause bone loss and reduced calcium absorption.
E) Prednisone, a glucocorticoid, can cause peptic ulcer disease. Report signs of gastric bleeding, such as hematemesis or black, tarry stools.

A health care professional should question the use of morphine for a patient who is recovering from which of the following procedures?

A) Mastectomy
B) Knee arthroplasty
C) Cytoscopy
D) Cholecystectomy

ANS: D

Rationale:
Morphine can cause biliary colic. It is inappropriate for patients who have just had biliary tract surgery, such as cholecystectomy.

A health care professional should advise patients to take acetaminophen (Tylenol) for which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

A) To reduce fever
B) To decrease inflammation
C) To relieve mild pain
D) To promote sedation
E) To alleviate anxiety

ANS: A, C

Rationale:
A) Acetaminophen reduces fever. It is important, however, to monitor patients taking the drugs for signs of hepatotoxicity.
C) Acetaminophen relieves mild to moderate pain. It is important, however, to monitor patients who might take high doses for early signs of toxicity, including sweating, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort.

A health care professional should advise a patient who has which of the following to stop taking ibuprofen (Advil) to treat an occasional headache or muscle strain?

A) Penicillin allergy
B) Peptic ulcer disease
C) Dysmenorrhea
D) Hyperthyroidism

ANS: B

Rationale:
Ibuprofen, an NSAID, is inappropriate for patients who have peptic ulcer disease. Health care professionals should monitor patients who are taking OTC analgesics for gastric bleeding, and test or treat patients who have H. pylori prior to long-term or repeated treatment with these drugs.

A health care professional should question the use of acetaminophen (Tylenol) for patients who have which of the following?

A) Asthma
B) Diabetes mellitus
C) Heart failure
D) Alcohol use disorder

ANS: D

Rationale:
Acetaminophen can cause liver toxicity. Patients who have a history of alcohol use disorder should not take the drug.

A health care professional should question the use of morphine for a patient who is taking which of the following drugs?

A) Phenobarbital (Luminal) for a seizure disorder
B) Warfarin (Coumadin) for anticoagulation
C) Glipizide (Glucatrol) for diabetes mellitus
D) Alendronate (Fosamax) for osteoporosis

ANS: A

Rationale:
Taking morphine and phenobarbital together can cause increased CNS depression. Lower morphine doses are essential for patients who are taking phenobarbital. Health care professionals should monitor patients who are taking both drugs for decreased respirations and blood pressure and increased sedation.

A health care professional should question the use of tramadol (Ultram) for patients who have which of the following?

A) Seizure disorder
B) Hyperthyroidism
C) Rheumatoid arthritis
D) Urinary incontinence

ANS: A

Rationale:
Tramadol, a nonopioid analgesic, can cause seizure activity. Patients who have seizure disorders, head injuries, or increased intracranial pressure should not take the drug.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who has osteoarthritis and is about to begin taking aspirin. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following possible indications of salicylism? (Select all that apply.)

A) Fever
B) Tinnitus
C) Diaphoresis
D) Thrombophlebitis
E) Dizziness

ANS: B, C, E

Rationale:
B) Ringing or buzzing in the ears can indicate salicylism. Patient should report this reaction, and stop taking aspirin at least until tinnitus resolves.
C) Sweating and headache can indicate salicylism.
E) Dizziness can indicate salicylism.

A health care professional is preparing to administer butorphanol (Stadol) to a patient for pain control. During administration, the health care professional should take which of the following actions?

A) Caution the patient about the drug’s potential for abuse.
B) Withhold the drug for respiratory rates below 12/min.
C) Administer one nasal spray into each nostril.
D) Give the drug with an opioid agonist for maximal effects.

ANS: B

Rationale:
Butorphanol, an opioid agonist-antagonist, can cause respiratory depression. It is essential to monitor respiratory rate prior to administration and withhold the drug for rates below 12/min.

A health care professional should question the use of celecoxib (Celebrex) for a patient who has which of the following?

A) Rheumatoid arthritis
B) Ankylosing spondylitis
C) An allergy to sulfonamides
D) Adrenocortical insufficiency

ANS: C

Rationale:
Patients who are allergic to sulfonamides can have severe allergic reactions to celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Patients who are allergic to salicylates can also react adversely to the drug.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking tramadol (Ultram) to treat moderate acute pain from a shoulder injury. When talking with the patient about the drug, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions? (Select all that apply.)

A) Increase fiber and fluid intake.
B) Take the drug with food.
C) Avoid driving after taking the drug.
D) Change positions gradually.
E) Reduce exercise level temporarily.

ANS: A, B, C, D

Rationale:
Tramadol can cause:
A) constipation and dry mouth.
B) nausea and vomiting.
C) sedation and drowsiness.
D) sedation and drowsiness.

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is receiving morphine to relieve severe pain. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects? (Select all that apply.)

A) Diarrhea
B) Urinary retention
C) Respiratory depression
D) Sedation
E) Orthostatic hypotension

ANS: B, C, D, E

Rationale:
Morphine can:
B) cause urinary retention. Monitor fluid I/O and assess for bladder distention.
C) cause severe respiratory depression. Withhold drug for respiratory rates below 12/min.
D) cause sedation, dizzness, and lightheadedness. Avoid activities that require alertness.
E) cause hypotention and postural hypotension. Change positions gradually.

Which of the following drugs can increase the risk of Reye’s syndrome in children who have viral infections?

A) Butorphanol (Stadol)
B) Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
C) Tramadol (Ultram)
D) Aspirin

ANS: D

Rationale:
NSAIDs, especially aspirin, can increase the risk for Reye’s syndrome in children who have viral infection, particularly chickenpox or influenza. Manifestations of Reye’s syndrome include lethargy and persistent vomiting.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy A health care professional is caring for a patient who is opioid-dependent and is about to begin taking butorphanol …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Caring for opiode-dependant patient taking butorphanol (Stadol). Nurse should recognize that the patient is at risk for developing a …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Older adult patient about take prednisone for long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Monitor for what adverse effects? Bone loss …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Naloxone reversea excessive dosage of: Morphine Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, reverses the effects of morphine, an opioid analgesic. HCPs …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Therapeutic Use (NSAIDS: COX-1 & COX-2 INHIBITORS) – aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) • Inflammation suppression • Analgesia for mild …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Types of Analgesics NSAID’s-interfere with prodiction of prostoglandins Opiods-stimulate opiod receptors Types of Anti-inflammatories Glucocorticoids Uricosurics WE WILL WRITE …

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