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Pharmakon
Greek meaning drug
Logos
Greek meaning disclosure
Logia
Latin meaning study
Pharmacology
-study of drugs
– all medicines are drugs, but not all drugs
are medicine
-The science that deals with the chemical and physical properties of drugs, their sources, effects, biotransformation and excretion.
-The study of the effects of chemical substance upon living tissues.
1. To be able to cure disease.
2. To be able to prescribe drugs to the patient appropriate for his condition.
3. To be able to communicate with the medical staff and practitioner.
Importance of Pharmacology in Dentistry
the dentist
should be able to obtain the maximal advantage while producing the minimal disadvantage.
The prescriber
should be aware of how to drugs may modify the physiology of the patient.
1. Early period
2. Modern period
2 Periods of Pharmacology
Early period
Characterized by empirical observations in use of crude drugs
Primitive people discovered relationship between drugs and disease
Use of drugs is prevalent
Aurelius Paracelsus (1493- 1541)
1st to recognize mixing of numerous substances producing effective compound.
Felice Fontana (1720- 1805)
isolated the “active principle” of each drug. This AP, when administered, yield a characteristics effect on the body.
Frederick Serturner (1780- 1841)
German pharmacist extracted the alkaloid morphine from opium/ marked the beginning of pharmaceutical chemistry, and experimental biology.
Rudolf Buchheim (1820-1879) and Oswald Schmeideberg (1838- 1921)
two individuals most responsible for establishing pharmacology as a science in its own right. B -organized the 1st laboratory exclusively devoted the pharma and became 1st professor of his discipline. S -Founded the 1stsciebtific journal of pharmacology.
John Abel (1857- 1938)
-protégé of S, regarded as the father of American pharmacology
Sir William Osler (1894)
– “man has an
inborn craving for medicine”
Modern period
Based on experimental investigations on the site and mode of action of drugs.
Francois Magendie
– initiated the scientific method to studies on drugs.
-Father of of experimental pharmacology
Claude Bernard (1813- 1878)
expanded the methods of francois magendie
Oswald Schmiedeburg (1838- 1921
touted with the development of experimental pharmacology in Germany.
-Father of modern pharmacology
John Jacob Abel (1857- 1938)
– associated with the development of experimental pharmacology in America growth in pharmacology was greatly stimulated by the rise of synthetic organic chemistry which provided new tools and new therapeutic agents
Claude Bernard
– expanded application in scientific method
Alexander Fleming
– discovered penicillin
Hippocrates
– father of medicine
Oswald Schmeideburg
– development of experimental pharmacology, father of modern pharmacology, experiments on chloroform and urethane
Joseph Lister
– antiseptic technique
John Jacob Abel
– epinephrine from adrenal gland extracts, isolation of histamine from pituitary extract, and preparation of pure crystalline insulin
Reid Hunt
– student of JJ Abel, discovered acetylcholine in adrenal extracts
c
Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacotherapeutics
Pharmacognosy
Pharmacy
Pharmacogenetics
Posology
Toxicology
Biochemorphology
Developmental Pharmacology
Descriptive pharmacology
Clinical pharmacology
Molecular pharmacology
Branches of Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics
– Concerned with the absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs.
-deals with the magnitude and time course of drug effects.
-movements of the drugs in the body
– “how does the body handle the drugs?”
Pharmacodynamics
– Deals with the effects of drugs in the body
– Study of the biologic activity that a drug has on a living system
– Deals with the mechanism of action/effect of drug in living organism and their corresponding responses and the physiologic and biochemical effects of the drug
“how does the drug produce its effect?”
“what does the drug do to the body?”
Pharmacotherapeutics
-how does the drug cure the disease
– clinical pharmacology
– uses/ application of drugs in the treatment
of disease
– the art and science of using drugs in the
diagnosis, treatment and prevention od
disease
Pharmacognosy
-identification and procurement of crude and naturally occurring drugs
-Former Name: “Materia Medica”
Pharmacy
– procurement, preparations and dispersing
of drugs
Pharmacogenetics
effects of drug on people with congenital abnormalities of metabolism
Ex. Eskimos- hydrolize isoniazid = faster than other races
Ex. Geatrics – barbeturates =stimulation rather than depression
Posology
– Study of dosage of drugs
Toxicology
– Study of the adverse effects of drugs. Dealing with poisons, their actions, detections and the treatment conditions produced by them
Biochemorphology
– Alteration of the chemical structure of drugs to produce different effect
Developmental Pharmacology
-effects of drugs in fetal development
– ex. Thalidomide babies – teratogenic
– ex. Tetracycline – tetracycline stains
Descriptive pharmacology
– Study of the qualitative effects of drugs in man
Clinical pharmacology
– Study of objectives effects of drugs in man
Molecular pharmacology
– Effects of drugs at the molecular level
DRUGS
-any chemical substance that affects or
modifies the biologic system
– chemical necessary for the maintenance of
life processes by their ability to act
selectively in biologic systems to
accomplish a desired effect
– as single entity that may be one of the
consistent of medicine
Medicine
may contain one or more active constituent
(drugs) together with additives ti facilitate
administration
1. Natural
2. Synthetic /Chemical Substance
Sources of Drugs
animals, plants, minerals
natural
animals

-glandular products are the chief medicines currently obtained from animal sources

Ex.Thyroid hormone, insulin from pancreas of pigs and epinephrine from ACTH

plants

-crude drugs may be obtained from any part of various plants used medicinally

Ex. Leaves-pito-pito, alagaw, banaba, digitalis from foxglove plant

minerals
iron, commonly used in the form of ferrous sulfate.
A. Pure drugs and others simple substances
B.Products of complex synthetic (antibiotics, sulfonamides and adrenocorticosteroids)
Synthetic /Chemical Substance
serendipity (luck and intuition)
molecular roulette (random clinical synthesis) – program basic research with synthesis of specifically chemical
clinical observation of drug action in the practice
Strategies in Drug Development
evolution of a new drug
drug development strategies
experimental pharmacology
toxicological assessment
clinical evaluation
marketing and promotion
Stages in the Development of a Drug
Clinical Evaluation of Drugs Phase 1
pilot study that uses small number of human volunteer
initially, low doses of drugs that are gradually increased and the toxic exaggerated effects are monitored
Phase 2
the drug is testes in limited numbers of hospitalized patients with the disease the drug is intended to treat
test drug is compared to establish to drugs and placebo
Phase 3
testing is intended to large group of outpatients to permit evaluation of the drug under conditions that any exist if the drug is marketed
if the drug is safe and effective for its intended use, the FDA may approve the drug for marketing
Phase 4
a new drug is usually marketed only after a few hundred or at most a few thousand patients have been exposed to it t for a relatively short period of time
post marketing surveillance is necessary to asses efficacy and toxicity of a new drug on a larger scale
Various
ideas
Chemist
Natural or synthetic chemical compounds
Pharmacologist
Pharmacological tests
Biochemist
Performs “biologic assays”
Toxicologist
Acute toxicity Chronic Toxicity tests
Pharmacist
MutagenecityTeratogenesisCarcinogenecity Pharmaceutical Formulation/Clinical Trials
Clinical Pharmacologists and Normal Volunteers
Phase 1; A pilot investigation made in a small number of normal volunteers
Dentist/Doctor/ Patients, and clinical Pharmacologists
Phase 2: An open clinical trial carried out in a small number of patients
Nurse/Patients/ Statistician
Phase 3: Large scale clinical trial
Practicing Dentists/ Doctors and Patients
Phase 4: Monitored release and post marketing surveillance

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