Pharmacology Final exam terms

Define pharmacokinetics
Study of what the body does to the drug

Define absorption
movement of the drug from its site of administration to the blood

Define distribution
movement of drugs throughout the body or transport of a drug in the body by the bloodstream to its site of action

Define metabolism
The breaking down of a drug

Define excretion
Elimination of drug from the body

Define pharmacodynamics
The study of what the drug does to the body

Define Generic (name)
Easy to pronounce and remember, what people know the drug by, has endings like -cillin, -triptan, -pam etc, This is the PREFERRED name

Define Trade (name)
Indicated that the drug has a registered trademark

Define OTC
over the counter

Define bioavailability
Ability of a drug to reach the systemic circulation from its site of administration

Define first pass effect
Some of the drug being inactivated or diverted before it can reach general circulation

Define BBB
Blood Brain Barrier, Anatomy of cell walls of endothelial cells of capillaries in the CNS

Define protein availability
proteins that have not yet bound with a drug

Define half life
The time it takes for 50% of the original amount of a drug in the body to be removed

Define MEC
Minimum effective concentration, plasma drug level below which therapeutic effects will not occur

Define toxic range
Concentration at which the drug level is too high

Define therapeutic range
range of plasma drug level falling between the MEC and toxic concentration to provide effective therapy with minimal toxic side effects

Define P-450 enzymes
Major system of hepatic enzymes, used to metabolize a majority of drugs

Define agonist
Drugs that attach to create a response

Define antagonist
Drugs that attach but do not elicit a response

Define idiosyncratic
An uncommon drug response resulting from a genetic predisposition

Define latrogenic
A drug induced condition

Define teratogenic
A drug induced birth defect

Define tolerance
A decreased responsiveness to a drug as a result of repeated drug administration

Define receptor
a region of tissue, or a molecule in a cell membrane, that responds specifically to a particular neurotransmitter, hormone, antigen, or other substance.

Define neurotransmitter
A chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse

Define Sympathetic (adrenergic)
“fight or flight” hyper, active functioning, increase HR and BP, bronchodilation, dilation of pupils (midriasis), mobilize stored energy

Define Parasympathetic (cholinergic)
“house keeping chores” Calm and chill functioning, part of the Autonomic nervous system and PNS, slow heart rate, increase gastric secretion, empty bladder, empty bowel, focus eye for near vision (mitosis) bronchoconstriction,

Define diuretic
First line antihypertensives, cause urination

Define resorption
The process or action by which something is reabsorbed.

Define hypnotic
A sleep-inducing drug.

Define chronotrope
Refers to heart rate, positive chronotrope increases HR and a neg. chronotrope decreases HR

Define dromotrope
Refers to conduction of the action potential through the heart, positive dromotrope increases conduction through the hear and a neg. dromotrope decreases conduction through the heart

Define inotrope
Referes to contractility of the heart, positive inotrope increases contractility of the heart, neg. inotrope decreases contractility of the heart

Define glycogenolysis
Conversion of stored glycogen to glucose

Define glyconeogenesis
The break down of amino acids and fats in an effort to raise blood glucose levels, makes new glucose

Define insulin resistance
A resistance to the hormone insulin, resulting in increasing blood sugar

Define erythropoesis
Stimulation of bone marrow to create more RBC’s

Define TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Define FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Define LH
Leutinizing Hormone

Define ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone

Define GH
Growth Hormone

Define LDL
Low density lipoprotein

Define HDL
High density lipoprotein

Define osteoclasts
Breakdown of bone

Define osteoblasts
Build up of bone

Define selective toxicity
The ability of a drug to injure a target cell without injuring other cells or organisms in intimate contact with the target

Define empiric therapy
Treatment aimed at a most likely organism, based on an educated guess on what the patient has

Define Culture
The cultivation of bacteria, tissue cells, etc., in an artificial medium containing nutrients.

Define Sensitivity

Define cytotoxic
Toxic to living cells

Define bacteriocidal
Drugs that are directly lethal to bacteria, they kill bacteria

Define bacteriostatic
Drugs that slow bacterial growth but do not cause cell death

Define AAPMC
Antibiotic associated pseudomembrane colitis

Define HAART
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Define anemia
A condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.

Define colony stimulating agents (CSA)
Acts on bone marrow to stimulate the formation of blood cells. (CSA)

Define immunosuppression
The partial or complete suppression of the immune response of an individual

Define Microcytic
Condition in which RBC’s are unusually small

Define Macrocytic
Condition in which RBC’s are unusually large

Define hypochromic
Condition in which RBC’s are paler than normal

Define Myleosuppression
The decreased production of cells that provide immunity, carry oxygen, and those responsible for providing clotting

Define cathartic
Providing psychological relief through the open expression of strong emotions; causing catharsis.

Define ANC
Acid Neutralizing Capacity

Define Antiemetic
Drugs that prevent vomiting

Define ophthalmic
Relating to the eye

Define otic
Relating to the ear

Define Controlled Drug Categories A,B,C,D,X
A- No fetal harm
B- Slightly more risk than A, No harm in animals
C- Greater risk than B, Harm in animals, none in humans
D- Risk of fetal harm, potential benefits may be acceptable
X- NEVER USE

Define Pregnancy categories A-X

Define Pharmacology
The study or science of drugs and their interactions with living organisms

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