Pharmacology Exam 2 Review

CHAPTER 22
—-ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS

Captaopril (Capoten)
The first available ACE inhibitor and is considered the prototypical drug for the class. Minimizing or preventing the left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction can arise in the acute period after an MI and thereby improving the pts chances of survival.

Losartan
Used in pts for with hypertension and heart failure.

Hydralazine
It can be taken orally to treat routine cases of essential hypertension. May be given intravenously. It is specifically indicated as an adjunct for treatment of heart failure in African American patients.

Clonidine
Clonidine is used primarily for its ability to decrease blood pressure. It must not be discontinued abruptly, as this will lead to severe rebound hypertension.

CHAPTER 23
—-ANTIANGINAL DRUGS

Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)
Organic nitrate. Rapid acting sub lingual tablets, immediate release tablets, and long acting oral dosage forms

Nitroglycerin (NTG or TNG)
Used in the symptomatic treatment of ishemic heart conditions such as angina. Tablets administered sublingual for treatment of chest pain or angina of acute onset. Also intravenous form used for blood pressure control in hypertensive pts, treatment of ischemic pain, heart failure, and pulmonary edema associated with acute MI.

Atenolol (Tenormin)
Cardioselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker and is indicated for the prophylactic treatment of angina pectoris.Oral form only

Metaprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL)
Cardioselective beta-adrengic receptor blocker that is used for prophylactic treatment of angina and has many of the same characteristics as atenolol. Oral (immediate release and long acting) and perenteral (injectable) forms.

Diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac)
Only benzothiazepine CCB. It has a particular affinity for the cardiac conduction system and is very effective for the treatment of angina pectoris resulting from coronary insufficiency and hypertension. Used in treatment of atrial fibrillation and flutter along with paroxysmal supra ventricular tachycardia.

Isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur)
Two active metabolites of isosorbide dinitrate, but it has no active metabolites itself. Available in both immediate and sustained release oral dosage forms. Steady therapeutic response

CHAPTER 24
—-HEART FAILURE DRUGS

Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
A commonly used ACE inhibitor and is available in a generic form. It is used for hypertension, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction.

Valsartan (Diovan)
A commonly used ARB.

Dobutamine (Dobutrex)
Beta-selective vasoactive adrenergic drug that is structurally similar to the naturally occurring catechlamine dopamine. It increases cardiac output by increasing contractility (positive inotrophy), which increases the stroke volume, especially in pts with heart failure.

Nesiritide (Netrecor)
Synthetic version of human B type natriuretic peptide. B type natriretic peptide (BNP) is a substance secreted from the ventricles of the heart in response to changes in pressure that occur when heart failure develops. Only injectable form

Milrinone (Primacor)
Presently available PDI after the discontinuation of inamrinone (Inocor) in May 2011. Exerts both a positive inotropic effect and a vasodilatory effect. Only injectable form.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Indicated for the treatment of heart failure and atrial fibrillation and flutter. Available in oral and injectable forms

CHAPTER 25
—-ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS

Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone)
Prolongs the action potential duration and effective refractory period in all cardiac issues. Most effective antidysrhythmic drugs for controlling supraventricular and ventricular dysrhythmias. Oral and injectable form only.

Atenolol (Tenormin)
Cardioselective beta blocker, which means it preferentially blocks the beta adrenergic receptors that are located primarily in the heart. Treatment of hypertension and angina. Oral form only.

Diltazem (Cardizem)
Primarily indicated for the temporary control of a rapid ventricular response in pts with atrial fibrillation or flutter and PSVT. Oral and parenteral forms.

Dofetilide (Tikosyn)
One of the newer antidysrhythmic drugs. Must be initiated in the hospital. EKG monitoring for the first 3 days.

Lidocaine (Xylocaine)
Prototypical Ib drug. It is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of ventricular dysrhythmias. Only intravenously, has an extensive first pass effect. Local anesthetic

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
Cardioselective beta blocker commonly given after MI to reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Also treatment of hypertension and angina. Oral and injectable forms

Quinidine (Quinidex)
Direct action on the electrical activity of the heart and an indirect (anticholinergic) effect. Forms oral, parenteral (injectable forms) and 3 salt forms

Sotalol (Betapace)
Selective beta blocker used to treat dysrhythmias. Historically reserved for the treatment of documented life threatening ventricular dysrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia. Oral only.

Verapamil (Calan)
Inhibits calcium ion influx across slow calcium channels in cardiac conduction tissue. Prevent and convert recurrent PSVT and to control ventricular response in atrial flutter and fibrillation. Also used for the management of various dysrhythmias but is also used to treat angina, hypertension, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

CHAPTER 26
—-COAGULATION MODIFIER DRUGS

Alteplase (Activase)
Available t-PA made through recombinant DNA techniques. For therapeutic use and antigen antibody reaction. It is believed to open the clogged artery rapidly, but action is short lived. It is given with heparin to prevent reocclusion of affected blood vessel. Also used for ischemic stroke. Parenteral form only.

Aspirin
Used for antiplatelet purposes. Oral and rectal form.

Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Most widely used ADP inhibitor on the market. Oral form only.

Dabigatran (Pradaxa)
First oral direct thrombin inhibitor that is approved for prevention of strokes and thrombosis in pts with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)
Prototypical LMWH and is obtained by enzymatically cleaving large unfractionated haparin molecules into small fragments. Commonly given for prophylaxis treatment. Injectable only.

Eptifibatide
GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Administered in ICU or cardiac catheterization lab settings. IV only.

Fondaparinux (Arixtra)
Inhibitor of factor Xa, which is indicated for prophylaxis or treatment of DVT or PE. Bleeding is the most common adverse effect.

Heparin
Naural mucopolysaccharide anticoagulant obtained from the lungs, intestinal mucosa, or other suitable tissues primarily of pigs. IV injectable form only.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Pharmaceutical derivative of the natural anticoagulant known as coumarin. Oral anticoagulant. Oral and IV.

CHAPTER 27
—-ANTILIPEMIC DRUGS

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Cholesterol lowering drugs. Its used to lower total LDL cholesterol levels as well as tryglyceride levels. Once daily with meal. Oral form only.

Cholestyramine (Questran)
Prescription only. Used for its constipating effect, often given as needed for loose bowel movements.

Niacin
Beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol levels. PO only

Simvastatin (Zocor)
Used to lower total and LDL cholesterol levels as well as triglyceride levels. Can also modestly raise levels of HDL (good cholesterol). Oral only.

CHAPTER 28
—-DIURETIC DRUGS

Furosemide
Most commonly used loop diuretic in clinical practice and the prototypical drug in this class. Used in management of pulmonary edema and the edema associated with heart failure, liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, and ascites. Also used in treatment of hypertension usually caused by heart failure. Oral and injectable form.

Hydrochlorthiazide (HydroDiuril)
Considered the prototypical thiazide diuretic, is commonly prescribed and inexpensive. Oral form only

Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Prototypical osmotic diuretic. Intravenous injection.

Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Synthetic steroid that blocks aldosterone receptors. Used in high dosages for the treatment of, a condition commonly associated with cirrhosis of the liver. It is the potassium sparing diuretic most commonly prescribed for children who have heart failure. Oral form only.

Triamterene (Dyrenium)
Acts directly on the distal renal tubule of the nephron to depress the resorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium and hydrogen. Oral form.

CHAPTER 36
—-ANTIHISTAMINES, DECONGESTANTS, ANTITUSSIVES, EXPECTORANTS

Dextromethorphan
Nonopioid antitussive that is available alone or in combination with many other cough and cold preparations.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Traditional antihistamine that works peripherally and centrally. Most commonly used antihistamine. Prevention of allergies, motion sickness, the treatment of parkinsons, and the promotion of sleep. Oral, parenteral, topical.

Guaifenesin (Mucinex)
Commonly used expectorant. Thins mucus in the respiratory tract that is difficult to cough up. Capsules, tablets, solutions, granules.

Loratadine (Claritin)
Non sedating antihistimine. Used to relieve the symptoms of seasonal allergies. Oral or syrup only.

CHAPTER 37
—RESPIRATORY DRUGS

Albuterol (Proventil)
Short acting beta-specific broncho-dialating beta agonist. Oral or inhalational use only.

Montelukast (Singulair)
Work by blocking leukotriene D4 receptors to augment the inflammatory response. Oral only

Salmeterol (Serevent)
Long acting beta agonist bronchodilator. Maintenance treatment for asthma and COPD.

CHAPTER 41
—ANTITUBERCULAR DRUGS

Isoniazid
The mainstay in the treatment of TB and the most widely used antitubercular drug. Used for treatment of active TB. Kills the mycobacteria by disrupting cell wall synthesis and essential cellular functions. Oral or injection only.

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