Pharmacology Exam 1 Study guide

What is a Half-Life?
is the amount of time it takes after absorption for 1/2 of the drugs concentration to be eliminated.

How does a half-life impact drug dosing?
if the drugs 1/2 life is 36 hours they will only be taking it once a day. So its lasting effect in the body determines how many times a person would take it.

What is protein binding?
The ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances, and most commonly refers to the bonding of drugs to these molecules in blood plasma, red blood cells, other components of the blood and to tissue membranes.

How does protein binding effect drug absorption and dosing?
Drug dose is prescribed according to the percentage in which the drug binds to protein. It effects drug absorption by what is put together if two highly protein bond drugs are together they will cause toxicity.

What is Bioavailablity?
is the percentage of a medication that actually returns to the blood as an active metabolite.

How does bioavailablity effect drug dosing and and absorption?
By the amount of active drug in the system. Plus depending on route given it can cause toxicity

What is Hepatic first pass?
In which the medication in the blood stream are taken 1st the the liver, the dug may then be metabolized into an inactive form and excreted, then reduces the amount of active drug.

How does “first pass” Effect drug dosing and absorption?
because not all drugs pass through the liver.

What is Pinocytosis?
Is when cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles. SO the cellular membrane engulfs drug particles.

What are Peak drug level, what is it used for?
Peak is the highest plasma concentration of the drug at the specific time. The peak indicates the rate of absorption.

What is the trough drug level, what is it used for?
is the lowest plasma concentration of a drug, it also measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated.

When do you obtain peak and trough levels?
Trough levels are drawn immediately before the next dose. blood samples are collected to assess these levels and requested for drugs that can potentially be toxic.

What causes drug doses to be increased?
The patient will effect dosing, because not every person handles drugs the same. Then some drugs have a higher efficacy.

What causes drug doses to be decreased?
The patient, the type of drug, and the cause and effect wanted out of the drug.

What is drug accumulation?
increasing blood or tissue drug levels over time.

What are the signs and symptoms of drug accumulation?

What is absorption?
it is the movement of drug particles from the GI tract to the body fluids.

How does absorption effect dosing?
It effects dosing because depending on the drug the different ways it can be adsorbed will either be slower or faster.

How does food impact drug dosing/absorption?
Because the GI is mainly composed of fat and protein, so lipid soluble medications pass more quickly into circulation in the GI tract and are absorbed faster than water soluble medications.

What are the steps of the nursing process?
Assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

How do the steps of the nursing process get applied to pharmacology?
Because the steps will lead you to the correct medication choices for each patient.

How are the steps of the nursing process applied to drug administration?
Because when giving medications the nurse should be informed on all other meds a patient has had, things a patient is allergic to, what the meds are going to do for the patient. How long till the meds are going to be effected, then teaching the patient how the meds will be effect them and the changes they will then have to make.

How can the nursing process be connected to patient education?
Because the patient needs to be informed on the meds being taken.

What are the 5 plus 5 rights?
Right documentation, right assessment, right to education, right evaluation, right to refuse.

Why are the 5 plus 5 rights important?
To ensure each patient is cared for properly

Why do medications have more than one name?
They have a chemical name( which describes the drugs chemical structure), a Generic name( which is the universally accepted, official name or nonproprietary name for the drug.) Then they have the Brand/Trade name which is given by the drug company.

Who regulates drug administration by nurses?
The Nurse Practice Acts.

What are controlled substance schedules?
the level at which the drug can become addictive.

What are some examples of medications in each of the different schedules?
Cateogory I: Herion, hallucinogens
Category II: Meperidine, Morphine, Hydrocodone, Codeine, Amphetamines, perks.
Category III: Codeine preparations, non-narcotic drugs
Category IV: Phenobarbital, Benzodiazepines
Category V: Opioid-controlled substance fro diarrhea and cough.

What nursing actions will you take when administering these drugs?
The Nurse Practice Acts. Always having a second Nurse to confirm you’ve distributed the drugs accordingly.

What are the signs and symptoms or alcohol withdrawal?
tremors, anxiety, nausea and/or vomiting, headache, increased heart rate, sweating, irritability, and confusion.

How does alcohol impact medication administration and pharmacology?
If the injures are not life threatening the nurses must let the patient sleep of the drunkeness before treatment. Many medications can not be used with alcohol because they can increase illness, and increase symptoms for medications.

Why do people drink alcohol?
To help them relax, to socialize in groups, because they like the taste, and because its a part of our culture.

What does alcohol do in the body?
it can effect the heart, liver, brain, and many other parts of the body.

What are the signs and symptoms of drug abuse?
Depression, anxiety, and irritability.

How does drug abuse impact medication administration and pharmacology?
When a person is addicted to drugs it can cause the medications to not work, and change the reaction of drugs in the body.

What is Narcan?
it is an Opioid Antagonist.

What does Narcan do?
It is given to reverse the effects of drugs when a patient enters the ER in a coma.

When is Narcan utilized?
When a person is experiencing a drug over dose.

St. Johns Wort
This is used to treat Depression. This is a prepared steeped as teas, 1-2 cups per day. After 4-6 weeks a patient should notice feeling less depressed.

Peppermint
Used to stimulate appetite and aids in digestion when taken internally.

Peppermint Oil
is effective in treating tension headaches if rubbed on the forehead.

Hot peppermint Tea
can help with a cold by reducing fever, clears congestion, and restores energy.

Zinc
Essential for normal growth and tissue repair, wound healing, and taste and smell. Teach patient to not take it intranasal zinc because it can cause permeant loss of smell.

Where is Zinc found?
it is found in Beef, lamb, eggs, leafy and root vegetables.

Milke thistle
natural treatment for live problems, may also be effective in treating heart benefits, lowering cholesterol, helps in type two diabetes, cirrhosis, may reduce some cancer growth (Breast, cervical, and prostate.) Take it orally or as tea, almost immediately starts to work or may take a couple days.

Valerian
Used for sleep disorders, muscle and joint pain. Acts as a sedative on the brain. you take it 30 mins to 2 hours before bed.

Goldenseal
is also used for the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections, as well as stuffy nose and hay fever, UTI’s and other bladder problems. Best when taken by mouth.

What groups of people should avoid herbs?
People who are taking other drugs, small children, and pregnant women.

What kind of drug dosing can you anticipate with a geriatric patient?

Please remember this is about 1/3 of the pharmacology exam. It may be beneficial for you to practice calculations and/or review a nursing math book to help prep. You may not have used all the calculation methods recently. Questions may …

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