Pharmacology Exam 1 Chapters 1-7

Pharmacology
The study of drugs

Pharmacodynamics
The action of drugs

Pharmacokinetics
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

Pharmacotherapeutic’s
The use of drugs and treating diseases.

Pharmacy
Dispensing drugs

Posology
The study of dosage of the drug to produce effect

Toxicology
Harmful effects

Therapeutic effect
Intended or desired effect

Side effect
Inconvenience or nuisance

Adverse affect
Harmful

Toxic
Lethal extremely harmful

Side of action
Location the drug produces the desired effect

Mechanism of action
Exactly how Drug produces a fit

Receptor site
Site cell surface where drug Binds

Agonist
Binds to receptor and produces effect

Antagonist
Binds to receptors and produces no effect “Blocker”

Competitive antagonism
Agonists and antagonists compete for the same site

Ceiling effect
Above a certain dose no further increase in response

ED50 (effective dose)
Effect of dose that produces half-maximal response

Potency
Measure of the amount required to produce desired effect

Onset
Time required to reach a threshold (minimal effect) concentration

Duration
Length of time drug produces effect

Termination
Time when concentration falls below minimum effective concentration

LD 50 lethal dose 50
Dose required to kill 50% animals tested

Therapeutic index
LD50/ED50 the higher the number to say for the drug

Idiosyncrasy
An individual reaction to the drug with an unusual or unexpected result

Drug allergies
Develop an individual develops antibodies to the drug (drug acts as an antigen)

Anaphylaxis
Severe allergic reaction that can result in death

Generic name
Nonproprietary name (usually a contraction of the symptomatic chemical name)

Trade name
Proprietary name marked by a company

Nonprescription
Over the counter

Prescription
Requires a written order in by physician, dentists, or veterinarian

PDR
Physicians desk reference used by healthcare professional

USP/NF
United States pharmacopeia/ National Formulary-by pharmaceutical industry

Controlled substance act
Schedule 1
High abuse potential
NO accepted medical use

Controlled substance act
Schedule II
High abuse potential

Accepted medical use

Controlled substance act
Schedule III
Moderate abuse potential

Accepted medical use

Controlled substance act
Schedule IV
Low abuse potential

Accepted medical

Controlled substance act
Schedule V
Limited abuse potential

Accepted medical use

Aqueous
Prepared with water

Elixirs
Prepared with alcohol

Powder
Ground solid

Tablet
Compressed powder

Capsule
Gelatin coating

Enteric coated
Dissolves in the intestine not the stomach

Troches
Tablet that dissolves

Ointment
Topical application

Transdermal
Skin Patch

PO
Oral administration

IM
Injection into the deltoid or gluteal muscle

IV
Injection into blood via vein

Diffusion
Movement from an area of high concentration to low concentration

Charged form
Soluble in water

Uncharged form
Soluble in lipids

Incompatibility
Can’t mix into the same container before administration

Additive
Combined effects by same mechanism

Summation
Combined effects by different mechanism

Synergism
Greater than sum of effect

Antagonism
Less than sum of effect

Tolerance
Decreased drug effect after repeated use

Cross-tolerance
Decreased effect between drugs of the same class

Metabolic tolerance
Induction of the DMMS

Pharmacodynamics tolerance
Reduced number of receptors

Dependence
Reliance on the drug important to individual May have withdrawal

Addiction
Drug behavior dominates other activites

Geriatric medicine
Treatment of elderly >65

Polypharmacy
Multiple prescriptions

Enterohepatic cycle
lipid soluble drug reabsorbed (intestine-blood-liver-bile)

Creatinine
protein metabolite

Creatinine clearance
assay to determine kidney function

Compliance
taking the drug as prescribed

Mixed-function oxidase system
enzymes of the DMMS that are decreased in elderly

Solute
substance dissolved in solvent; usually component in the smaller amount

Solvent
part of the solution that is the larger amount; usually a liquid

Solution
homogeneous mixture

Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord

Afferent nerves
sensory nerves transmit info to brain

Efferent nerves
motor nerves transmit info to brain

somatic nerves
controls skeletal, voluntary muscles (conscious control)

Visceral nerves
controls cardiac or smooth involuntary muscles (unconscious control)

Autorythmicity
muscles initiate their own contraction

Homeostasis
balance

Dual autonomic innervation
two nerves with opposite effects to control activity of organ or muscle

Parasympathetic
craniosacral region

Sympathetic
thoracolumbar region

Norepinephrine
neurotransmitter of the sympathetic system

Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic system

MAO
enzyme that metabolizes NE

Alpha adrenergic receptor
receptor mediates contraction causing vasoconstriction and dilation of the pupils

Beta 1 Adrenergic receptor
receptor mediates cardiac output; increases rate and force of contractions

Beta 2 Adrenergic receptor
receptor mediates bronchodilation and vasodilation of coronary/skeletal muscle

sympatholytic
decrease sympathetic response

sympathomimetric
increase sympathetic response

norepinephrine
interacts with the alpha and beta 1 adrenergic receptors

epinephrine
interacts with the alpha, beta1, beta2 adrenergic receptors

pseudoephedrine
interacts with the alpha adrenergic receptors as a nasal decongestant

tetrahydrozoline
interacts with the alpha adrenergic receptors as a ocular decongestant

isoproterenol (Isuprel)
interact with the Beta1 and Beta2 adrenergic receptors as a potent nonselective Beta-drug

albuterol (Proventil)
interacts with the Beta2 adrenergic receptors as short acting bronchodilator

salmeterol (Serevent)
interacts with the Beta2 adrenergic receptors as long acting pronchodilator

dopamine
interacts with Alpha and Beta receptors; NT in brain; indicated for circulatory shock

tamsulosin (Flomax)
Alpha blocker; indicated to increase urine flow for enlarge prostate

doxazosin (Cardura)
Alpha blocker; indicated for hypertension and enlarged prostate

propranolol (Inderal)
first nonselective Beta-blocker; decreases heart rate output but w bronchoconstriction; lipid soluble

nadolol (Corgard)
nonselective Beta-blocker; decreases heart rate output but w bronchoconstriction; water soluble

metoprolol (Lopressor)
selective Beta1 blocker; decrease in cardiac output without bronchoconstriction

methyldopa (Aldomet)
adrenergic neuroal blocker that is converted into a false transmitter

guanethidine (Ismelin)
adrenergic neuronal blocker that depletes storage vesicles and release of NE

Bethanechol (Urecholine)
direct acting cholinergic drug used to treat urinary retention

Pilocarpine (Isopto carpine)
direct acting cholinergic drug used in the treatment of glaucoma

Ambenonium (Mytelase)
indirect acting cholinergic drug with a long duration used to treat M.G.

Physostigmine
indirect acting cholinergic drug that can reverse CNS anticholinergic blockade

Neostigmine (Prostigmin)
indirect acting cholinergic; reverse CNS anticholinergic; reverses CNS anticholinergic blockade; to treat M.G.

Echothiophate (Phospholine)
irreversible inhibitor or ACHase used topically to treat glaucoma

Pralidoxime (Protopam)
reactivates ACHase used as antidote to organophosphate anticholinesterase

Tacrine (Cognex)
indirect acting cholinergic drug used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s

Atropine
anticholinergic drug used to increase heart rate and preop to dry respiratory secretions

Scopolamine
anticholinergic drug used to treat motion sickness

Tolterodine (Detrol)
anticholinergic drug used to treat overactive bladder

M.G.
myasthenia gravis

First-Pass Effect Drug absorbed from GI tract and carried to the liver through portal circulation. Some drugs extensively metablized by liver. Only part of drug reaches systemic circulation for distribution theses types of drugs should not be administered PO (lidocaine/some …

Adverse effects General term for undesirable and potentially harmful drug effect Agonist Drug that binds to a receptor and activates a physiological response or drug action WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

The main route of drug elimination is through the_ kidneys (urine). Other routes include bile, feces, lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk. The kidneys filter free unbound drugs, water-soluble drugs, and drugs that are unchanged Acidic urine promotes elimination of …

Drugs that effect the sympathetic nervous system are termed adrenergic agonists and adrenergic blockers Adrenergic agonists are also called sympathomimetics or adrenomimetics WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

Two divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral Nervous System (outside of brain and spinal cord) Two divisions of the Peripheral NS Efferent Division (consists of the neurons that carry signals AWAY from the …

Two groups of drugs that affect the sympathetic nervous system: The adrenergic agonists (sympathomimetics or adrenomimetics) and the adrenergic blockers (sympatholytics or adrenolytics) The alpha adrenergic receptors are located in the: vasculature tissues (vessels) of muscle WE WILL WRITE A …

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