Pharmacology Easy Notes

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Digoxin (Lanoxin)

– Antidysrhythmic
– Inotropic (Increases contractility)

D- dig level 2ng/ml or greater is toxic
I- inhibits sodium potassium ATPase
G-GI or CNS signs indicate adverse effects (N/A for adult toxicity, stomach upset in older child
O-output, intake, and weight should be monitored
X- dont give if pulse is less than 60 bpm
I- indicated for CHF- a-fib
N- note K+, ECG, and renal function tests

Epinephrine

– Increased CO and HR
– Decrease renal perfusion and PVR

N- nervousness (undesirable effect)
A- angina, arrhythmia (undesirable)
S- sugar is increased
C- cardiac arrest
A- allergic reaction
R-respiratory bronchodilator

Norepinephrine (Levophed)

– Increase CO and HR
– Decrease renal perfusion and PVR

S- stim alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
H- hypovolemia- should be corrected before using drug
O- output of urine should increase
C- constriction of blood vessels
K- keep monitoring vital signs every 5-15 min

Nitroglycerin

– Lowers BP
– Increase HR

A- avoid alcohol
N- note BP and apical pulse before admin
G- given to relax the vascular smooth system
I- indicated for angina pectoris
N-note for postural hypotension; rise slowly
A- advice client to seek medical assistance if pain is unrelieved after 3 doses with 5 min interval

ACE Inhibitors (pril)
– Benazepril (Lotensin)
– Captopril (Capoten)
– Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
– Lisinopril (Zestril)
S- suppresses renin angiotensin aldosterone system
W- warn client with renal or thyroid diseases
E- ends with pril- captopril (capoten) enalapril (vasotec)
R- rise slowly to reduce orthostatic hypotension
T- treatment of HTN, HF
E- evaluate BP

ACE Inhibitor SE
C ough
A naphylaxis
P alpitations
T aste
O rthostatic hypotension
P otassium elevated
R enal impairment
I mpotence
L eukocytosis

Beta Blockers (lol)

– Atenolol (Tenormin)
– Labetalol (Trandate)
– Carvedilol (Coreg)

B- bradycardia
B- blood pressure too low
B- bronchial constriction
B- blood sugar is masked when low

Calcium Channel Blocker (Increase myocardial o2 delivery for angina pt)
– Amlodipine (norvasc)
– Diltiazem (Cardizem)
– Nifedipine (Procardia)
B- blocks calcium access to cells
I- indicated for HTN
L- let client take drug with milk or meal
L- light and moisture- protect

Diuretics

– Loop (Furosemide/Lasix)
– Osmotic (Mannitol/Osmitrol)
– K+ Sparing (Aldactone/spironolactone)

D- diet; increase K+ for all except aldactone (Spironolactone)
I- intake, output, daily weight monitoring
U- undesirable effects- F&E imbalance
R- review HR, BP, and electrolytes
E- elderly careful, evening dose not recommended
T- take with or after meals and in AM
I- incrase risk of orthostatic hypotension, move slowly
C- cancel alcohol and cigs

warfarin (coumadin)
monitor?
antidote?
what food should be avoided?
– prothrombin time is monitored 1.5-2.5 X control is the therapeutic range
– Vit K is the antidote
– Green leafy veg should be avoided

Warfarin (coumadin)
C- check vital signs, platelte count, and PT
O- observe bleeding
R- review bleeding protocol
A- avoid ASA, may use acetaminophen

Heparin Sodium
– Anticoagulant
– Indicated for DVT/PE`
– PTT must be monitored 1.5-2.5 X control
– Antidote is protamine sulfate
– hospitalization is required for IV heparin

Clopidogrel (Plavix)
– Antiplatelet
– MI, stroke, CAD
B- bleeding, brochospasms- undesired effects
L- lowers risk of atherosclerotic events
E- evaluate bruising
E- evaluate liver function
D- do take with food or after meals

Lipid lowering agents / HMG CoA inhibitors

– Atorvastatin (lipitor)
– Lovastatin (Mevacor)
– Simvastatin (Zocor)

– Competitive inhibitors of HMG-COA reductase, an enzyme necessary for cholesterol biosynthesis
indicated for hypercholesterolemia
atorvastatin (lipitor), simvastatin (zocor)

lipid lowering agents/ HMG CoA inhibitors pneumonic
S- statin is the ending
T- take with food and at bedtime
A- always consume 2-3 L of fluid daily
T- teach client to do exercise and weight reduction as well
T- treat hypercholesterolemia
I- increase fiber in diet
N- never give if with liver disease

Antibiotics Pneumonic

– Metronidazole/Flagyl
– Trimethoprim/Primsol
– Penicillin/Amoxicillin/ Augmentin

M- monitor superinfections
E- evaluate renal/liver function
D- diarrhea- take yogurt
I- inform provider prior to taking other meds
C- cultures prior to initial dose
A- alcohol is out, ask about allergy
T- take full course
E- evaluate cultures, WBC, temp, blood

Aminoglycosides (-mycin)
– Amikacin, Gentamicin
– Serious infections caused by gram- negative infections
– AE: htn,HA, N,V,Tremor, Weakness,
– Ototoxicity, Nephrotoxicity

Allopurinol (Zyloprim)

– Antigout agents

G- gulp 10-12 glasses of fluid daily, GI distress (undesirable effect)
O- output and input monitor closely
U- uric acid production decreased, use no alcohol
T- take after meals

Phenytoin (Dilantin)
– Antidysrhythmic
– Anticonvulsant
– Can cause ataxia (lack of muscle control) and Nystagmus (Involuntary eye movement)
G- gingival hyperplasia
U- use alternate birth control
M- mouth care; preventative dental check up
S- soft toothbrush; don’t stop abruptly

Lithium (eskalith) pneumonic (Lithi)
L- level therapeutic 0.6-1.2 meq/l
I-increased urination
T- thirst increased
H- headache and tremor
I- increase fluids

Lidocaine Pneumonic

– Used for ventricular arrhythmias also

L- local anasthetic
I- ICU popular antiarrythmic
D- digitalis toxicity used
O- orally inactive
C- cinetidine+ propanolol
A- decrease Automacity
I- inactivated Na Channel blocker
N- nystagmus
E- eye blurred vision, ECG change

You have 1 heart and 2 lungs
Beta-1 are therefore primarily in the heart.
Beta-2 primarily in the lungs.

Antiepileptic SE (ABCDEFGH)

– Tx for seizures
– Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
– Phenytoin (Dilantin)
– Clonazepam (Klonipin)
– Phenobarbital

A taxia
B lood dyscrasia
C left lip
D upuytrens / Vit D deficiency
E xfoliation of skin & Stevens Johnson’s
F its
G I upset/gum hypertrophy
H epatitis/hairy

Barbituates (ABCD)

– Produce sedation
– Pentobarbital (nembutal)
– Secobarbital (seconal)

A taxia
B ehavioral disturbance
C oncentration decreased/coma
D epression/drowsy/diplopia

Corticosteroid SE

– Betamethasone (Celestone)
– Hydrocortisone (cortef)
– Dexmethasone (decadron)

C-cushings syndrome
O-osteoporosis
R-retardation of growth
T-thin skin n easy brusibility
I-infections n immunosupression
C-cataract n glaucoma
O-odema
S-supression of HPA axis
T-thining n ulceration of gastric mucosa
E-Emotional disturbance
R-rise in BP
I-Increase in hair growth(hirsuitism)
O-otherz like fetal abnormalties n hypokalemia
D-diabetes mellitus precipitation
S-stria

3 D’s for heart failure
– Digoxin
– Diuretics
– Dilators

Respiratory depression inducing drugs (STOP)
– Sedatives and hypnotics
– Trimethoprim
– Opiates
– Polymyxins

TB Treatment (PRIEST)

– s/s Cough/wt loss, F, Night sweat
– Manage: Isolate and medicate

Pyrazinamide
Rifampin
Isoniazid (INH)
Ethambutol
STreptomycin

ARO drugs to Tx respiratory infection
1. Amantadine- Antiviral, Parkinson Tx, Contraindicated in narrow angle glaucoma/breastfeeding

2. Rimantadine (Flumadine) – Antiviral; D/C if seizures occur

3. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)- Caution w/ CV/Renal disease

Atropine (Anticholinergic)

– What happens w/ OD
– How do you Tx

1. Increased temp, Confusion/delirium, Flushed, Dry/thirsty
2. Physotigmine

What occurs in a cholinergic crisis (SLUD)
– Salivation
– Lacrimation
– Urination
– Defacation

Anticholinergic effects
– Dry mouth
– Blurry vision
– Constipation
– Orthostatic htn
– Urinary hesitancy/retention

Drugs for bradycardia and decreased BP aka shock (IDEA)
” Shocking idea”
– Isoproternol (isuprel)
– Dopamine (intropin)
– Epinephrine
– Atropine

Potassium
Potassium sparing diuretics- Monitor K+
Output- Monitor closely
Take with food
Ace inhibitors Monitor K+
Signs of digitalis toxicity if K+ low
Serum level 3.5-5.0
IV site monitor for infiltration
Undesireable effects: N/V/CV dysrhythmia
Medical follow up

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy angiotension converting enzyme blockers . has what syllable pril ace inhibitors do what convert angiotension 1 to angiotension 2. …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy This antihypertensive suffix is? Pril What is the prototype for the ACE inhibitor? Captopril (capoten) WE WILL WRITE A …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What ate four types of RAAS supressants that support the treatmrnt of hypertension? Ace inhibitors Arbs Aldosterone antagonists Direct …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Ace inhibitors These tend to end in “pril” EXAMPLE: benzapril Lisinopril Ramipril Ace inhibitors Either used for blood pressure …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacokinetics Absorption–>Distribution–>Metabolism–>Excretion Absorption The movement of drug from site of administration to various tissues of the body. WE WILL …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Class Selective beta-blocker Description A Beta antagonist that blocks both beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors Selective for …

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