Pharmacology Drug Cards

hydrocodone
Brand Name: Hycodan, w/ acetaminophen=Vicodin
Class: antitussive agents (opioid), Opioid analgesics, opioid/non-opioid analgesic combo.
Action: Binds to opiate receptors in CNS to alter pain perception. Depresses the CNS.
Route/Dosage: PO: 5-10 mg q 4-6 hrs. prn
Side Effects: confusion, sedation, euphoria, hallucinations, hypotension, constipation, dependence
Nursing Implications: Use caution if resp. is <10/min. Prolonged use can lead to physical dependence or tolerance. Teaching: avoid driving. cough/turn/breathe deeply q. 2 hrs. Do not take with alcohol.

levothyroxine
Brand Name: Synthroid
Class: Hormones (TH)
Action: Increases BMR; restores normal hormonal balance
Route/Dosage:PO: Hypothyroidism- 75-125 mcg/day
Side Effects: insomnia, irritability, nervousness, CARDIOVASCULAR COLLAPSE, arryhthmias, tachycardia
Nursing Implications: assess pulse & BP
Teaching: take at the same time q day, reassess thyroid function every year.

cephalexin (first generation cephalosporin)
Brand Name: Keflex
Class: Anit-infective; cephalosporin
Action: Binds to bacterial cell walls causing cell death, mostly on gram positve bacteria
Route/Dosage: PO 250-500 mg q 6 h
Side Effects: seizures, diarrhea, rash, anaphylaxis
Nursing Implications: Obtain specimen sample to determine dosage. Monitor for signs of anaphylaxis and bowel function.
Teaching: Teach pt. about signs of superinfection (furry overgrowth on tongue, loose stools, allergy) and notify dr. if fever/diarrhea develop.

amlodipine
Brand Name:Norvasc
Class: antihypertensive; calcium channel blocker
Action: Inhibits calcium entry into myocardial muscle tissue & dialates blood vessels —> lower BP
Route/Dosage: 5-10 mg q day PO
Side Effects: headache, peripheral edema, angina, palpitations
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP/pulse and I & O. Assess for signs of CHF.
Teaching: Grapefruit juice increases effects. Caution patient to use good dental hygeine and avoid long amts. of time in the sun.

Albuterol
Brand Name: PROVENTIL® HFA
Class: bronchodilator
Action: relaxes airway muscles to improve breathing
Route/Dosage: IH/120 mcg per puff or PO
Side Effects: an allergic reaction, chest pain or irregular heartbeats.
Nursing Implications: monitor the pt. if they have hypertension, epilepsy; diabetes; hyperthyroidism; liver disease; or kidney disease. Monitor respiration quality.
Teaching: wait 2 min. b/t puffs,

pioglitozone
Brand Name: Actos
Class: antidiabetic; thiazolidinediones
Action: improves insulin sensitivity by acting as an agonist at receptor sites
Route/Dosage: 15-30 mg q day PO
Side Effects: CHF, edema, increased liver enzymes and increased likliness of hand/foot fracture
Nursing Implications: observe for signs of hypoglycemia: sweating, hunger, weakness/dizziness, tachycardia and anxiety
Teaching: If one dose is missed, take a double dose the next day, Teach signs of hypoglycemia and advise them to take a glass of OJ if experiencing signs. Contact dr. if hypoglycemic episode occurrs or if pregnant.

Spironolactone
Brand Name: Aldactone
Class: Potassium-sparing antidiuretic
Action: inhibits sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
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Side Effects: dizziness, headache, agranulocytosis, irregular menses, erectile dysfunction, and hyperkalemia
Nursing Implications: monitor I & O carefully and assess for signs of electrolyte imbalance/hyperkalemia
Teaching: avoid salt substitutes

Benedryl
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Celexa
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Coreg
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Donazepril
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Digoxin
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Flagyl
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Furosemide
Brand Name: Lasix
Class: loop diuretic
Action: inhibits reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- at the loop of Henle in the kidneys
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Side Effects: dehydration, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesia, hyponatremia, metabolic alkalosis, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis
Nursing Implications: assess fluid status, monitor BP and pulse before & during administration. Increases risk for falls. Assess for tinnitis. DO NOT GIVE IF ALLERGIC TO SULFONAMIDES
Teaching: change positions slowly

Glipizide
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Levaquin
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Lortab
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Lotensin
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Lisinopril
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Lipitor
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polyethylene glycol
Brand Name: Miralax
Class: laxatives, osmotics
Action: draws H20 into the large intestine–>evacuation or the GI tract without water or electrolyte imbalance
Route/Dosage:1 heaping TBSP PO dissolved w/ 8 ozH2O
Side Effects: abdominal bloating, cramping, flatulence, nausea
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: May need to use 2-4 days to achieve results. Do not use for more than 2 weeks –>laxative dependence

amlodipine besylate
Brand Name: Norvasc
Class: anti-hypertensive
Action: long-acting calcium channel blocker; dilates blood vessels
Route/Dosage: PO
Side Effects: feeling like you might pass out; swelling in hands or feet; chest pain; unusual heartbeats; easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness
Nursing Implications: not intended for those with CHF or liver disease. Don’t drink alcohol while on Norvasc. Monitor BP & assess chest pain (angina).
Teaching: continue to take med. as prescribed even if you are feeling better. Educate pt. about healthy eating/exercise habits to lower BP.

clopidogrel
Brand Name: Plavix
Class: anti-coagulant
Action: prevents platelet coagulation
Route/Dosage: PO
Side Effects: persistant nosebleed, black, bloody, or tarry stools; coffee grounds emesis; chest pain, nausea, sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden headache, confusion, fever, and urinating more or less than usual.
Nursing Implications: assess skin for bruising. Pt. may need to stop taking Plavix before surgery or dental work.
Teaching: avoid drinking alcohol, contact Dr. immediately if unusual bleeding occurs, do not take with aspirin or NSAIDs, take with a full glass of H2O

Prozac
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Senokot
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Synthroid
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Toradol
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Vancomycin
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Zofran
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Zosyn
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Lovenox
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Class: low molecular weight Heparin
Route/Dosage: sub Q in the love handles
Side Effects: Bleeding, anemia, increase in liver enzymes, edema, constipation, urinary retention, thrombocytopenia
Nursing Implications: Assess for signs of bleeding (bleeding gums, nosebleeds, unusual bruising) Check platelet count before administering. Normal range is 150-400,000

Ceftin
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Lexapro
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Novolog
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Lantus
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Humulin
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Calcium Carbonate/Vitamin D2
Brand Name: Oscal
Class: mineral and electrolyte replacement/supplement
Action: Indicated for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Essential for bone formation and blood coagulation.
Route/Dosage: PO 1-2 g q day
Side Effects: arrhythmias, constipation, nausea, vomitting
Nursing Implications: Monitor blood pressure, pulse and EKG. Observe for signs of hypocalcemia (muscle twitching, arrhythmias)
Teaching: Do not take enteric-coated pills within 1 hr. of calcium carbonate administration, as this will cause premature dissolution of tablets

magnesium hydrochloride
Brand Name: Milk of Magnesia
Class: mineral & electrolyte replacement; laxative
Action: Indicated for constipation; draws water into the GI tract causing peristalsis and evacuation of bowels
Route/Dosage: 30 ml po daily
Side Effects: diarrhea, flushing, sweating
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: Do not take within 2 hours of taking other medications

prednisone
Brand Name: Sterapred
Class: antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Action: Indicated for those with: chronic inflammatory diseases, allergic, hematologic, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders
Route/Dosage: 5 mg po daily
Side Effects: depression, euphoria, headache, cataracts, hypertension, peptic ulcers, nausea, acne, decreased wound healing, fragility, adrenal suppression, muscle wasting, osteoporosis
Nursing Implications: assess for signs of adrenal insufficiency (hypotension, weight loss, weakness, nausea, confusion). Monitor serum electrolytes and glucose levels.
Teaching: Take at the same time each day. Do not stop medication suddenly as this may cause adrenal insufficiency

bisacodyl
Brand Name: (Dulcolax)
Class: laxative
Action: stimulates peristalsis
Route/Dosage: 10 mg PR daily PRN constipation
Side Effects: cramping, rectal burning, nausea, diarrhea
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: advise that laxatives should only be used for temporary, not long term, constipation relief. Encourage increase of bulk in diet.

Desmopressin Acetate 0.1 mg po TID
Brand Name: DDAVP, Stimate
Class: antidiuretic hormone
Action: Indicated for treatment of diabetes insipidus. Enhances water reabsorbption at the kidneys
Route/Dosage: 0.1 mg po TID
Side Effects: seizures, drowsiness, headaches, listlessness, nausea, water toxicity, hyponatremia
Nursing Implications: monitor urine volume and blood pressure frequently; signs of water toxicity include: confusion, headache, weight gain, and difficulty urinating
Teaching: contact hospital if signs of water toxicity develop; do not take with alcohol

Colace (docusate) 100 mg po BID
Class: laxative; stool softener
Indications: prevents constipation in patients who should avoid straining (such as after an MI).
Side Effects: throat irritation, mild cramps, rashes
Implications: assess for abdomenal distension, presence of bowel sounds and bowel function

Magnesium hydroxide
Brand: Maalox
Class: antiulcer agents, antacid
Indications: GI complaints: hyperacidity, indigestion, GERD, Heartburn
Side Effects; diarrhea, hypermagnesia,
Nursing Implications: Assess for heartburn and indigestion, as well as quality of pain. Monitor labs for phosphate, potassium, and calcium serum levels.

-Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (Septra/Bactrim DS TB) 1 tab po Q 12 H
class: anti-infective, antiprotozoal, folate antagonist, sulfonamides
Indications: tx of bronchitis, shigella enteritis, otitis media, pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, UTIs, and traveler’s diarrhea
Side Effects: fatigue, hallucinations, headache, insomnia, mental depression, pseudomembranous collitis, hepatic necrosis, nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, rashes, aplastic anemia, erythema multiforme, steven-johnson’s syndrome
Nursing Implications: assess infection, obtain specimens for culture, assess for allergies to sulfonamides, monitor CBC and urinalysis, may increase bilirubin, creatinine, and phosphate

CARBAMAZEPINE Brand name: CARBAMAZEPINE Generic name: Tegretol Classification: CNS AGENT; ANTICONVULSANT; TRICYCLIC How is it used in mental health: Adverse effects: Myalgia, arthralgia, leg cramps, carbamazepine-induced SLE. Contraindications: Certain psychiatric disorders including prophylaxis and treatment of manic-depressive illness, treatment of …

Acetaminophen Classification Therapeutic: antipyretics, nonopiod analgesics Pharmacologic: none Acetaminophen Administration PO, PR WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Acetaminophen Common Side Effects GI: hepatic failure, heptatoxicity GU: …

Bisacodyl Suppository Generic Name: Bisacodyl Suppository Trade Name (s): Dulcolax Classification: Laxative OB Category: Category B Mechanism of Action: Unclear. Thought to stimulate colonic mucosa, producing parasympathetic reflexes that enhance peristalsis and increase H20 and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing evacuation …

Ketorolac/Toradol Classification therapeutic: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonopioid analgesics Pharmacologic: pyrroziline carboxylic acid Ketorolac/Toradol administration PO, IM, IV WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Ketorolac/Toradol Common Side Effects …

Docusate/ Colace Classification Therapeutic: laxatives Pharmacologic: stool softeners Docusate/ Colace Nursing Implications assess for abdominal distentionn, presence of bowel sounds and usual pattern of bowel function. assess color, imbalance and dependence. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

lisinopril/Zestril classification therapeutic: antihypertensive Pharmacologic: ACE inhibitor lisinopril/Zestril administration PO WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample lisinopril/Zestril common side effects dizzy, fatigue, headache, cough hypotension lisinopril/Zestril nursing …

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