Pharmacology Drug Cards

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hydrocodone
Brand Name: Hycodan, w/ acetaminophen=Vicodin
Class: antitussive agents (opioid), Opioid analgesics, opioid/non-opioid analgesic combo.
Action: Binds to opiate receptors in CNS to alter pain perception. Depresses the CNS.
Route/Dosage: PO: 5-10 mg q 4-6 hrs. prn
Side Effects: confusion, sedation, euphoria, hallucinations, hypotension, constipation, dependence
Nursing Implications: Use caution if resp. is <10/min. Prolonged use can lead to physical dependence or tolerance. Teaching: avoid driving. cough/turn/breathe deeply q. 2 hrs. Do not take with alcohol.

levothyroxine
Brand Name: Synthroid
Class: Hormones (TH)
Action: Increases BMR; restores normal hormonal balance
Route/Dosage:PO: Hypothyroidism- 75-125 mcg/day
Side Effects: insomnia, irritability, nervousness, CARDIOVASCULAR COLLAPSE, arryhthmias, tachycardia
Nursing Implications: assess pulse & BP
Teaching: take at the same time q day, reassess thyroid function every year.

cephalexin (first generation cephalosporin)
Brand Name: Keflex
Class: Anit-infective; cephalosporin
Action: Binds to bacterial cell walls causing cell death, mostly on gram positve bacteria
Route/Dosage: PO 250-500 mg q 6 h
Side Effects: seizures, diarrhea, rash, anaphylaxis
Nursing Implications: Obtain specimen sample to determine dosage. Monitor for signs of anaphylaxis and bowel function.
Teaching: Teach pt. about signs of superinfection (furry overgrowth on tongue, loose stools, allergy) and notify dr. if fever/diarrhea develop.

amlodipine
Brand Name:Norvasc
Class: antihypertensive; calcium channel blocker
Action: Inhibits calcium entry into myocardial muscle tissue & dialates blood vessels —> lower BP
Route/Dosage: 5-10 mg q day PO
Side Effects: headache, peripheral edema, angina, palpitations
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP/pulse and I & O. Assess for signs of CHF.
Teaching: Grapefruit juice increases effects. Caution patient to use good dental hygeine and avoid long amts. of time in the sun.

Albuterol
Brand Name: PROVENTIL® HFA
Class: bronchodilator
Action: relaxes airway muscles to improve breathing
Route/Dosage: IH/120 mcg per puff or PO
Side Effects: an allergic reaction, chest pain or irregular heartbeats.
Nursing Implications: monitor the pt. if they have hypertension, epilepsy; diabetes; hyperthyroidism; liver disease; or kidney disease. Monitor respiration quality.
Teaching: wait 2 min. b/t puffs,

pioglitozone
Brand Name: Actos
Class: antidiabetic; thiazolidinediones
Action: improves insulin sensitivity by acting as an agonist at receptor sites
Route/Dosage: 15-30 mg q day PO
Side Effects: CHF, edema, increased liver enzymes and increased likliness of hand/foot fracture
Nursing Implications: observe for signs of hypoglycemia: sweating, hunger, weakness/dizziness, tachycardia and anxiety
Teaching: If one dose is missed, take a double dose the next day, Teach signs of hypoglycemia and advise them to take a glass of OJ if experiencing signs. Contact dr. if hypoglycemic episode occurrs or if pregnant.

Spironolactone
Brand Name: Aldactone
Class: Potassium-sparing antidiuretic
Action: inhibits sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
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Side Effects: dizziness, headache, agranulocytosis, irregular menses, erectile dysfunction, and hyperkalemia
Nursing Implications: monitor I & O carefully and assess for signs of electrolyte imbalance/hyperkalemia
Teaching: avoid salt substitutes

Benedryl
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Celexa
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Coreg
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Donazepril
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Digoxin
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Famotidine
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Flagyl
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Furosemide
Brand Name: Lasix
Class: loop diuretic
Action: inhibits reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- at the loop of Henle in the kidneys
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Side Effects: dehydration, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesia, hyponatremia, metabolic alkalosis, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis
Nursing Implications: assess fluid status, monitor BP and pulse before & during administration. Increases risk for falls. Assess for tinnitis. DO NOT GIVE IF ALLERGIC TO SULFONAMIDES
Teaching: change positions slowly

Glipizide
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Levaquin
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Lortab
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Lotensin
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Lisinopril
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Lipitor
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polyethylene glycol
Brand Name: Miralax
Class: laxatives, osmotics
Action: draws H20 into the large intestine–>evacuation or the GI tract without water or electrolyte imbalance
Route/Dosage:1 heaping TBSP PO dissolved w/ 8 ozH2O
Side Effects: abdominal bloating, cramping, flatulence, nausea
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: May need to use 2-4 days to achieve results. Do not use for more than 2 weeks –>laxative dependence

amlodipine besylate
Brand Name: Norvasc
Class: anti-hypertensive
Action: long-acting calcium channel blocker; dilates blood vessels
Route/Dosage: PO
Side Effects: feeling like you might pass out; swelling in hands or feet; chest pain; unusual heartbeats; easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness
Nursing Implications: not intended for those with CHF or liver disease. Don’t drink alcohol while on Norvasc. Monitor BP & assess chest pain (angina).
Teaching: continue to take med. as prescribed even if you are feeling better. Educate pt. about healthy eating/exercise habits to lower BP.

clopidogrel
Brand Name: Plavix
Class: anti-coagulant
Action: prevents platelet coagulation
Route/Dosage: PO
Side Effects: persistant nosebleed, black, bloody, or tarry stools; coffee grounds emesis; chest pain, nausea, sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden headache, confusion, fever, and urinating more or less than usual.
Nursing Implications: assess skin for bruising. Pt. may need to stop taking Plavix before surgery or dental work.
Teaching: avoid drinking alcohol, contact Dr. immediately if unusual bleeding occurs, do not take with aspirin or NSAIDs, take with a full glass of H2O

Prozac
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Senokot
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Synthroid
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Toradol
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Vancomycin
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Zofran
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Zosyn
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Lovenox
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Class: low molecular weight Heparin
Route/Dosage: sub Q in the love handles
Side Effects: Bleeding, anemia, increase in liver enzymes, edema, constipation, urinary retention, thrombocytopenia
Nursing Implications: Assess for signs of bleeding (bleeding gums, nosebleeds, unusual bruising) Check platelet count before administering. Normal range is 150-400,000

Ceftin
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Lexapro
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Novolog
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Lantus
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Humulin
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Potassium
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Calcium Carbonate/Vitamin D2
Brand Name: Oscal
Class: mineral and electrolyte replacement/supplement
Action: Indicated for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Essential for bone formation and blood coagulation.
Route/Dosage: PO 1-2 g q day
Side Effects: arrhythmias, constipation, nausea, vomitting
Nursing Implications: Monitor blood pressure, pulse and EKG. Observe for signs of hypocalcemia (muscle twitching, arrhythmias)
Teaching: Do not take enteric-coated pills within 1 hr. of calcium carbonate administration, as this will cause premature dissolution of tablets

magnesium hydrochloride
Brand Name: Milk of Magnesia
Class: mineral & electrolyte replacement; laxative
Action: Indicated for constipation; draws water into the GI tract causing peristalsis and evacuation of bowels
Route/Dosage: 30 ml po daily
Side Effects: diarrhea, flushing, sweating
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: Do not take within 2 hours of taking other medications

prednisone
Brand Name: Sterapred
Class: antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Action: Indicated for those with: chronic inflammatory diseases, allergic, hematologic, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders
Route/Dosage: 5 mg po daily
Side Effects: depression, euphoria, headache, cataracts, hypertension, peptic ulcers, nausea, acne, decreased wound healing, fragility, adrenal suppression, muscle wasting, osteoporosis
Nursing Implications: assess for signs of adrenal insufficiency (hypotension, weight loss, weakness, nausea, confusion). Monitor serum electrolytes and glucose levels.
Teaching: Take at the same time each day. Do not stop medication suddenly as this may cause adrenal insufficiency

bisacodyl
Brand Name: (Dulcolax)
Class: laxative
Action: stimulates peristalsis
Route/Dosage: 10 mg PR daily PRN constipation
Side Effects: cramping, rectal burning, nausea, diarrhea
Nursing Implications: Assess bowel sounds, abdominal distension, and stool frequency/color
Teaching: advise that laxatives should only be used for temporary, not long term, constipation relief. Encourage increase of bulk in diet.

Desmopressin Acetate 0.1 mg po TID
Brand Name: DDAVP, Stimate
Class: antidiuretic hormone
Action: Indicated for treatment of diabetes insipidus. Enhances water reabsorbption at the kidneys
Route/Dosage: 0.1 mg po TID
Side Effects: seizures, drowsiness, headaches, listlessness, nausea, water toxicity, hyponatremia
Nursing Implications: monitor urine volume and blood pressure frequently; signs of water toxicity include: confusion, headache, weight gain, and difficulty urinating
Teaching: contact hospital if signs of water toxicity develop; do not take with alcohol

Colace (docusate) 100 mg po BID
Class: laxative; stool softener
Indications: prevents constipation in patients who should avoid straining (such as after an MI).
Side Effects: throat irritation, mild cramps, rashes
Implications: assess for abdomenal distension, presence of bowel sounds and bowel function

Magnesium hydroxide
Brand: Maalox
Class: antiulcer agents, antacid
Indications: GI complaints: hyperacidity, indigestion, GERD, Heartburn
Side Effects; diarrhea, hypermagnesia,
Nursing Implications: Assess for heartburn and indigestion, as well as quality of pain. Monitor labs for phosphate, potassium, and calcium serum levels.

-Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (Septra/Bactrim DS TB) 1 tab po Q 12 H
class: anti-infective, antiprotozoal, folate antagonist, sulfonamides
Indications: tx of bronchitis, shigella enteritis, otitis media, pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, UTIs, and traveler’s diarrhea
Side Effects: fatigue, hallucinations, headache, insomnia, mental depression, pseudomembranous collitis, hepatic necrosis, nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, rashes, aplastic anemia, erythema multiforme, steven-johnson’s syndrome
Nursing Implications: assess infection, obtain specimens for culture, assess for allergies to sulfonamides, monitor CBC and urinalysis, may increase bilirubin, creatinine, and phosphate

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy CARBAMAZEPINE Brand name: CARBAMAZEPINE Generic name: Tegretol Classification: CNS AGENT; ANTICONVULSANT; TRICYCLIC How is it used in mental health: …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Acetaminophen Classification Therapeutic: antipyretics, nonopiod analgesics Pharmacologic: none Acetaminophen Administration PO, PR WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Bisacodyl Suppository Generic Name: Bisacodyl Suppository Trade Name (s): Dulcolax Classification: Laxative OB Category: Category B Mechanism of Action: …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Ketorolac/Toradol Classification therapeutic: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonopioid analgesics Pharmacologic: pyrroziline carboxylic acid Ketorolac/Toradol administration PO, IM, IV WE WILL …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Docusate/ Colace Classification Therapeutic: laxatives Pharmacologic: stool softeners Docusate/ Colace Nursing Implications assess for abdominal distentionn, presence of bowel …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy lisinopril/Zestril classification therapeutic: antihypertensive Pharmacologic: ACE inhibitor lisinopril/Zestril administration PO WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

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