Pharmacology Clear and Simple – Ch. 18 – Pulmonary System Medications

The system is responsible for the process of inhaling oxygen into the blood and exhaling the waste in the form of co2.
Pulmonary , Respiration

Outward movement of air up through bronchial tubes and trachea, out of mouth and into the air is known as what?
Expiration

When mostly empty ungs inhale o2 from air the inward movement of air is called what?
Inspiration

Expiration and inspiration both require what?
Energy

Where does the exchange of CO2 and O2 occur inside the body?
Alveoli (tiny air sacs in lungs)

Changes is alveloar function occur with and diseases such as .
Smoking, Asthm

Often it is consider a when someone stops breathing or has trouble breathing (Dysapnea).
Medical emergency

Just to minutes without breathing can cause death.
4 to 6

Diseases such as disease and can cause dysapnea or impair the lung’s ability to function.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Tuberculosis (TB)

The meds used to treat pulmonary infections or diseases are determine by what?
The part of the respiratory system that is affected.

These pulmnary meds work by inhibiting mast cells from opening and releasing substances that cause inflammation. What are they?
Mast Cell Stabilizers

Mast cell stabilizers are used to or the occurence of asthma attacks but do not or help during a .
Prevent or Decrease do not Cure or help during an Acute attack

A person is taking mast cell stabilizers to help treat his breathing difficulty the nurse should inform the patient that it will take about how long for the med to work?
2 to 6 weeks

Mast cell stabilizing meds are adminstered most commonly via or , but also come in for seasonal allergies.
Nebulizer or Metered dose Inhaler also come in Intranasal Form

These meds work by easing the signs and symptoms of influenza. What are they?
Anti-influenza agents

How long are anti-influenza meds taken for?
2 to 5 days

The preffered method for preventing influenza is what?
Vaccines

This is an anti-influenza agent that is delivered in a powder form. What is it?
Relenza

These meds are used to stop coughs by blocking the cough reflex. What are they?
Antitussives

If a patient has a cough that is dry and thus not productive what type of med might a doctor prescribe?
Antitussive med

What drugs in low doses have been found to be effective antitussives?
Narcotic Analgesics (Codeine)

When secretions are present in a persons lungs what meds are used?
Expectorants

How do antitussive meds Expectorants work?
Increase bodys ability to clear lungs and upper airway by thinning secretions

Expectorants such as guaifenesin can also be used to the respiratory tract.
Sooth

Expectorants are typically given by mouth one of what 3 forms?
Syrup, Tablet, or Capsuel

Many respiratory illnesses are caused by or accompanied by what?
Bacterial infections

These meds are used to treat people with bacterial infections of the respiratory system. What are they?
Antibiotics

Treatment for bacterial infections of lungs includes antibiotic regiment lasting to days.
10 to 14

This bacterium in particular is highly contagious and causes Tuberculosis. what is it?
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

How long can the TB infection remain dormant in a person’s body?
A lifetime

Pharmacological treatment of TB consist of regiment of several drugs for to monthsbecause TB heals slowly. Meds may also be given to of to prevent infection.
6 to 12 months, Companions of Infected Patients to prevent infection

People who are infected with TB but dont have the disease are said to have what?
Latent Tuberculosis

People with Latent Tuberculosis are not what?
Contagious

When treating a TB patient with the drug Rifampin a nurse should be sure to tell the patient what?
That the Drug May Turn Their Tears, Urine, Presperation and other Body Fluids Yellow

Treating a patient with a virus with an antibiotic may actually harm the patient by what?
Increasing their Risk of aDeveloping an Infection Resistant to Antibiotics

Why are antiviral meds usually adminsitered?
To Decrease Duration and Symptoms of Virus

This common virus affects premature and other small infants due to extremely thick secretions associated with the illness. What is it?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Infants may also be given antiviral meds such as ribavirin (Virazole) who are at risk for complications such as or .
Pneumonia, or Bronchitis.

These meds are used to releive acute bronchospasm and include Anticholinergics, Xanthines, and Beta Adrenergic Antagonists.
Bronchodilator meds

These drugs work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the bronchi and allowing the atient to breathe more eaisily. What are they?
Bronchodilators

When Bronchodilators are taken it takes
For the patient to feel the effect but the action is of and the side effects may be felt as well.
Orally, Longer to feel effect action is of Longer Duration, side effects may be felt Longer as well

Anticholinergic meds are also known as what?
Parasympatholytics

These drugs dilate the bronchi by blocking the action of acetylcholine, which causes bronchospasms. what are they?
Anticholinergics

These meds are used to prevent brochospasms, not treat those already in progress. What are they?
Anticholinergics

What class of respiratory drugs tends to have the fight or flight response?
Anticholinergics

Because anticholinergic meds stimulate the Central Nervous System the nurse should expect what 4 effects?
Fight or Flight Response
Increase in Pulse and Blood Pressure
Drying up of Secretions
Decrease of Congestion

And are anticholinergics prescribed for people with bronchitis, emphasema, or COPD. is inhaled as mist is inhaled as powder.
Atrovent, Spiriva, Atrovent mist, Spiriva powder

Xanthine meds are also called what?
Methylxanthines

How do Xanthine meds work?
Relaxing smooth muscle to relieve bronchospasm

Why most the dosage of Xanthine meds becarefully adjusted based on the patients reaction?
Patients metabolize them at different rates

Xanthines are most commonly used to treat what illness?
Asthma

This type of Xanthine med may be given as a continuous infusion for serious asthma attacks. What is it?
IV aminophylline

How should oral forms of aminophylline be taken to ensure faster absorption?
With a glass of water and never on a full stomach

These bronchiodiltor meds are commonly used to treat asthma by stimulating beta 2 receptor sites in the CNS to achieve bronchial dilation. What are they?
Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists

How are short acting forms of Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists used?
As needed

How are long acting beta adrenergic antagonists used?
To Control Asthma

This beta-adrenergic antagonist is given as a subcutaneous injection in episodes of severe dysapnea with asthma. what is it?
Epinephrine (Adrenalin)

This beta-adrenergic antagonist acts as a brochodilator opening up the airway when other drugs wont an is usually used in severe cases of asthma. what is it?
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)

What does the acronym MDI stand for?
Multi-Dose Inhaler

These meds cause the blood vessels in the nasal mucus membranes to constrict thus reducing nasal passage drainage. What are they?
Decongestants

Decongestants are available as and that may be to treat and symptoms.
Nasal Sprays and Oral meds may be Combined With Different Meds to treat Cold and Allergy symptoms

Which form of decongetant provides immediate relief of nasal mucosal swellingand congestion?
Topical

Decongestants must be used on a basis to avoid problems.
Short-Term basis to avoid Rebound Congestion problems

Decogestants should never be given to who?
Children younger than 2 years old

When using Decogestants dosages of what meds should be monitored to avoid overdose situations?
Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen

These meds work by suppressing the immune system thus decreasing inflammation. What are they?
Glucocorticoids

In severe acute episodes meds such as methylprednisolone may be used in what form?
IV

Meds in what class of drugs should be taken for the least amount of time possible?
Glucocorticoids

These respiratory meds work by liquefying thick lung secretions so that they canbe excreted through coughing. What are they?
Mucolytics

Mucolytics make thick lung secretions eaiser to cough up by?
Changing the composition of the mucus

This type of drug is most commonly used as an aresol treatment in patients with Cystic Fibrosis. What is it?
Mucolytics

This drug may be used for low oxygenation or hypoxia. What is it?
Oxygen

Long term use of Oxygen includes the management of what disease?
COPD

Acute use of Oxygen as a drug is used to treat what?
Dysapnea and Carbon Monoxide Posioning

What are the 5 ways oxygen may be delivered?
Nasal Cannula, Tent, Endotracheal Tube, Hood, or Mask

Oxygen is considered a and you must have to administer it.
Drug, An Order

When delivering oxygen never do what?
Give more than is ordered

What can happen if a nurse treating a patient with COPD with oxygen more O2 than ordered?
Shut off the adaptive mechanism stopping or slowing patients breathing and lowering O2 levels in the blood

What is a side effect of too much Oxygen particuarly in infants?
Eye damage

Term decribes periods of time where breathing stops is what?
Apnea

What type of patient is most likely to experience apnea?
Premature infant

What type of medications do many premature infants take months after leving the neonatal unit?
Respiratory stimulants

What class of meds is given to stimulate the respiratory center of the brain?
Respiratory stimulants

In the adult patient the reason for sleep apnea is usually what?
Structural problem causing an obstruction

In the adult patient with sleep apnea medication has been found to help, and , change such as wright loss are needed to open up airway.
Medication has been found to Not help and Surgery, and Lifestyle

What are the 3 main illnesses caused by smoking?
Emphysema, Lung Cancer, and Bronchitis

Smoking cessation drugs may be combined with and therapy to increase their effectiveness.
Hypnosis, Behavioral therapy

What do smoking cessation aids typically contain?
Small, Consistant Doses of Nicotine

A patient using nicotine patches to quit smoking should be informed that they cannot , or wear nicotine patches when inside an as this may result in burns at site of patch.
Smoke (increase risk of nicotine overdose), MRI

This drug was developed as an antidepresant but has been found to be effective in helping people quit smoking What is it?
Bupropin Hydrochloride (Wellbutrin, Zyban)

What are the potential risks associated with Bupropin Hydrochloride (Wellbutrin, Zyban) in helping people quit smoking?
Suicidal Ideation and Completion

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