Pharmacology Clear and Simple -Ch. 17 – Immunological System Medications

Term reffers to a foreign substance in the body?
Antigen
What is the bodys natural response to any microbe invasion?
Inflammation
Where does the inflammatory response initally begin?
At the site of invasion (cut) where chemicals are released
The chemicals released in the inflammatory response include a vasodilator that causes pain, a prtein that destroys antigens, and chemicals released by Cells: histamine; leukotrines
Bradykinin, Complement, 3 chemicals released by Mast cells
These 2Mast cells cause smooth muscle contraction, blood vessel dilation, and itching. What are they?
Histamine, Leukotrines
What are the 3 chmicals released by Mast cells?
Histamines, Leukotrines, and Prostaglandins
Chemical released by Mast Cells that increase capillary permeability, attract leukocytes to inflammation site, and increase pain is what?
Prostaglandins
When does the second phase of inflammatory response occur?
As immune system lauches attack by secreting Antibodies specific to invading agents
Term reffers to immunoglobins that fight antigens is what?
Antibodies
Term reffers to Cell type that records attack and guards against those microbes if they enter body again is what?
B-Cells (memory cells)
These may be administered to encourage the roduction of B-cells.
Vaccines
Term reffers to lymphoctes that dont produce antibodies but instead create cytokines.
T-cells
What do Cytokines create?
Inflammation
Medications may be used to or the response depending on patients condition.
Support or Inhibit the Immune response
This type of medication may be given to a patient to fight bacterial infections.
Anti-infective meds
What three meds are used to fight off other invading organisms?
Antitoxin, Antifungal, Antiviral, and Antiparastic Meds
What type of medications may be used in treating autoimmune disorders?
Anti-inflammatory meds
Disorder in which the bodys immune system attacks itself are called what?
Autoimmune disorder
These are considered an overresponse of the bodys defense to substances that may not be an actual threat. What are they?
Allergies
Pollen, Animal dander, mold, mildew, dust , and cigaret smoke are all example of what kind of agents?
Sensitizing Agents
What are 3 common symptoms of a mild allergy such as allergic Rhinitis?
Sneezing, Nasal congestion, and Watery eyes
This is the most severe type of allergic reaction.
Anaphylatic Shock
Patients wo have serious allergic reactionsmay experience what other 4 things?
Urticaria(hives), Swelling, Itching, Difficulty Breathing
What are the 5 types of drugs used to treat allergic reactions?
Antihistamines, Glucocorticoids, Nasal decogestants, NSAID’s, and Immunosuppressants
These drugs block histamine response and decrease itching, swelling, and congestion.
Antihistamines
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), loratadine (Claratin, Tavist), and cetirizine (Zertec) are examples of what type of drugs?
Antihistamines
This antihistamine can be administered by the IV route for severe allergic reactions?
Diphenhydramine
Antihistamines are also reffered to as what?
H-Recptor antagonists
Antihistamines/H-receptor antagonists have what 3 main effects?
Relaxation of Respiratory, Vascular, and Gastrointestinal Smooth muscles
These type of drugs are steroid-like compounds used to suppress the bodys inflammatory response?
Glcocorticoids
These type of drugs such as beclomethasone (Beclovent), budesonide(Entocort), and Fluticasone(Flovent) may be administered to combat Allergic Rhinitis?
Glucocortioids
These type of medications such as hydrocortisone (Cortef) are administered how? for minor inflammation
Glucocorticoids administered topically
This glucocorticoid is given systemically, usually in IV form, for acute or severe inflammation such as a spinal cord injury. What is it?
Methylprednisolone
Glcocorticoids must only be used and gradualy .
As Prescribed and Gradually Decreased
Why should Glcocorticoids only be used as prescribed and decreased gradually?
Becase they suppress the immune system
These medications are used to aleviate nasal congestion intranasally by drying secretions. What are they?
Nasal decongestants
Naphazoline drops (Privine) and tetrahydrozoline nasal (Tyzine Nasal) are examples of what type of medications?
Nasal decongestants
Nasal decogestants work by causing on the adrenergic receptors in the nose by affecting the tone of the blood vessels . The mucous membranes as a result promoting drainage.
Vasoconstriction on the adrenergic receptors in the nose by affecting the Sympathetic tone of the blood vessels. the mucous membranes Shrink as a result promoting drainage
How long are nasal decogestants typically used for?
3 to 5 days
If nasal decogestants are used for longer than 5 days this may occur and cause further suffering.
Rebound nasal congestion
These medications reduce inflammation and do not contain steroids and are the most common treatment for inflammation.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
These type of drug also have antipyretic (fever reducing) and analgesic (pain reducing) propertities. What are they?
NSAID’s
NSAID’s accomplish their antpyretic and analgesic effects by doing what?
Inhibiting Prostaglandin synthesis
The substances responsible for producing inflammation, Fever, and pain are called what?
Prostaglandins
NSAID’s such as Ibprofen (Advil, Motrin) and Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn) can be what?
Purchased over the counter and taken by mouth
NSAID’s such as diclofenac (Voltaren) and celecoxib (Celebrex) are available how?
By Prescription only
Oral NSAIDS only available by perscription such as diclofenac (Voltaren) and celecoxib (Celebrex) are used to treat conditions such as?
Arthritis
This NSAID is given by the IV route for moderate to Severe pain?
Ketorolac (Toradol)
This class of drugs is typically used for long-term therapy of inflammatory diseases such as Reuhmatoid Arthritis, Psoriasis, and Chrons disease. What is it?
Immmunosuppressants
Rheumatoid Arthritis is typically treated with what immunosuppresants? (2)
Azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan) and Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune,and Gengraf)
What 2 immunosuppressants is Psoriasis treated with?
Cyclosporine andd Sirolimus (Rapamune) for a short time (up to couple of months) alternating with other therapies.
What Immunosuppresant is Chrons disease treated with?
Azathiporine (Imuran, Azasan)
What other class of drugs may be prescribed in order to suppress the immune system and speed up the healing process?
Corticosteroids
These medicatioons are classified by their mechanisms of action or chemical structure and target the processes of inading microorganisms. What are they?
Anti-infective medications
Some anyti-infective medications will target synthesis while others inhibit or synthesis while others the wall
Protein synthesis RNA or DNA synthesis, others Destroy the Cell wall
These medications include antibiotics, antitoxins, and antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic medications. What are they?
Anti-infective medications
Bacterial organisms have special characteristics such as the fact that they do not need a to , can or and are all potentially vulnerable to .
Dont need a Host to Reproduce, can Change or Mutate, all vulnerable to Antibiotics
Bacteria are named based on what 2 things?
Ability to retain shape, and Ability to retain stains
Bacteria retain stains and are classified as either or .
Gram positive, or Gram negative
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, and Aminoglycosides are all examples of what type of medication?
Antibiotics
An antibiotic that is effective against many types of bacteria is called a?
Broad-spectrum antibiotic
When are broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed?
When the Bacteria have not yet been identified
Why is it vital that the right antibiotic be prescribed?
Bacteria have a wide range
The test that is used to determine which microorganism is present and which antibiotic will be most effective against it is called what?
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) test
Ampillians (Omnipen, Principen), Amoxicillin (Amoxil), and penicillin (Pen VK) are what types of medications? How are they distiguished among antibiotics?
Penicillin Medications, Among the oldest antibiotics
Pennicillin medications may be admistered either , , and via to treat many common infections such as , and .
Orally, Topically, and via Injection to treat common infections such as Strep tthroat and Otitis Media.
Becuse of the length of time penicillin medications have been available they tend to be the least what?
Expensive
Why is it that despite their low cost and wide availability more expensive antibiotics are often needed?
Because many people are Allerggic to
Penicillin medications
This class of medications is similar to penicillins but are more expensive ad can be used by people who cannot tolerate penicillins. What are they?
Cephalosporins
Cephalosporins are organized into
Generations based on their .
4 generations based on their activity
What generation of Cephalosporins including meds like cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol) and cefadroxil (Duricef) are used mainly for patients allergic to penicillin?
First generation
What bacteria do first generation ccephalosporins act against?
Gram positive bacteria such as group B streptococci which can cause pneumonia
What generation of cephalosporins including meds cefprozil (Cefzil) and cefuroxime (Zinacef) and is used to treat nosocomial infections, pneumonia, and pelvic or intra abdominal infections?
Second Genration
What generation of cephalosporins including meds ceftriaxone(Rocephin) and ceftizoxime (Cefizox) act against gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E, coli)?
Third generation
What generation of cephalosporins would be used to treat E coli?
Third
What generation of Cephalosporins would be used to treat a person who was allergic to penicillin?
First
Second generation of Cephalosporins would be used treat what 3 types of illness?
Pneumonia, Nosocomial infections, Pelvic or intra-abdominal infections
What are fourth generation Cephalosporins such a cefepime (Maxipime) given for?
Severe nosocomial surgical infections
How are 4th generation cephalosporins given?
IV route
What substances should be avoided when treating a person with Cephalosporins? Why is this?
Alcohol, Alcohol containing substances
Avoided due to associated abdominal side effectss
This class of drugs was commonly used in the 50’s and 60’s but since then many bacteria have become resistant to them. What are they?
Tetracycline meds
Tetracycline medications function by preventing bacteria from to interrupt .
Protein Synthesis to interrupt Reproduction
Tetracyclines such as doxycycline (Vibramycin), minocycline (Solodyn) and tetracycline (Sumycin) are ueful against what microbes?
Both gram negative and Gram Positive
What types of bacterial infections can tetracyclines be used to treat?
Ones that cause Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Anthrax, and Urinarry Tract Infections
What types of people should not be treatedwith tetracyclines? (2) Why is this?
Children, Pregnant Women because Permanent Staining occurs in Teeth of Child or fetuss
What class of medcations includding meds such as Erythromycin (EES, Granules, Ery tab) Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and azithromycin (Zithromax, Z-Pak) are prescribed both orally and by injection for pencillin resistant infections?
Macrolides
Macrolides function by inhibiting dependant protein synthesis to inhibit bacterial .
RNA dependant protein synthesis to inhibitbacterial Reproduction.
Macrolides may either be or .
Bactericidal or Bacteriostatic
Term reffers to meds tht kill bacteria?
Bactericidal
Term reffers to drugs that Inhibit bacterial growth
Bacteriostatic
What classes of meds are used for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin infections, pertusis, Diptheria, pelvic inflammatory disease, syphilis, , legionnaires disease, strep throat, sinus infection, chri
Macrolides
These drugs such as amikacin (Amikin), paromomycin (Humatin, Paromycin) and trobamycin (Tobi, Nebcin) are more toxic than other antibiotics.
Aminoglycosides
These drugs are ideal against aerobic gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas which require oxygen to grow.
Aminoglycosides
How are Aminoglcosides usually administered?
Topically via ointments, eye or ear drops, or as IV injections
Patients taking aminoglycosides should be sure to have what monitored periodically for efficacy and toxicity?
Blood levels of the antibiotics
When would aminoglycosides be used?
When no other suitable anti-infective is available
Aminoglycoside medications have the potential to damage a person’s what?
Hearing and Kidney Function
These drugs such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and ofloxacin (Floxin) are bacteriostatic and prevent bacteria from growing. What are they?
Quinolone
Quinolone medications are considered to be what type of antibiotic?
Broad-Spectrum as they fight a wide variety of microorganisms
This class of antibiotics has had sme rare side effects such as ruptured tendons and as such are reserved for more antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. What are they?
Quinolone meds
What are the 3 routes Quinolone meds are given?
IV route, Opthalmically, or Orally
What class of broad spectrum antibiotics are useful in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections?
Quinolone meds
This class of antibiotics is among the earliest classes of Anntibiotics and incudes meds such as sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole (Thiosulfil Forte). What are they?
Sulfonamide meds
These drugs kill bacteria by interrupting their metabolism and because they collect in the bladder before they can be excreted are extremely useful for treating Urinary Tract infections. What are they?
Sulfonamides
Many people are allergic to Sulfonamides and develope various levels of reactions,
And injuries, difficulties and decreased levels of , and platelets.
Skin reactions, Liver and Kidney injuries Breathing difficulties and decreased levels of Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and platelets.
When administering sulfonamides what should healthcare professionals pay attention to?
Antibiotic allergy
What is one of the drawbacks of antibiotics is what?
They kill healthy and normal flora that are beneficial in fighting off infection
When the normal and healthy flora used to fiight off infection and aid digestion are destroyed what can result is a ?
Superinfection
When a Woman taking antibiotics has the normal flora in her stomach destroyed and experiences a Yeast infection as a result and necessitating the need for 2 different types of drugs to treat it this is an example of what?
A superinfection
Antibiotics that treat the disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is known as what?
Tuberculosis agents
This disease is treated two to four times a day for up to a year. Each drug eradicating the mycobacterium in a different way.
Tuberculosis
The Antituberculin medication Rifampin has one unique side effect of which patients and healthcare workers need to be aware. What is it?
It turns body secretions including sweat, tears, urine, feces, and saliva red orange
Rifampin is an antituberculosis agent that will contact lenses and my render based control ineffective.
Will Permanently Stain contact lenses and may render Hormonally based Birth control ineffective
These drugs are created in response to specific toxins and are able to counteract that toxin in a person at high risk for the disease or condition. What is it?
Antitoxin
The type of drug that would be given to a person who is exposed to a toxin such as diptheria, tetanus, or botulism but don’t have the adequate immunity to the invader would be what?
Antitoxin
These medications are used to treat fungalinfections such as Tinea Pedis (aka Athletees foot) or candidiasis (Yeast infection).
Antifungal medications
Unlike bacteria Fungi can be either or organisms with a complex structure.
Single celled Multi Cellular
Meds such as ketoconazole (Extina, Nizoral) and miconazole (Desnex, Micatin)can treat fungal infections such athletes foot. What are they?
Topical Antifungal meds
If the fungal infection is in the oral and GI mucosa (aka Thrush) what medication is used? Why is this?
Mycostatin, used cause it is not absorbed but coats the mouth and stomach
Meds such as fluconazole (Diflucan), Itraconazole (Sporanox) and ketoconazole(Nizoral) may be given to combat a fungal infection with the ability to spread. what are they?
Systemic antifungal medication
What antifungal medication may be used to treat a potentially life threatening fungi infection such as histoplasmosis which may affect the lung and other organs?
Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
What are the potential side effects of Amphotericin B?
Serious effects on Liver, Kidney, Blood counts, and electrolytes
Aids, Chickenpox, Shingles, Influenza, the common cold and herpes are all caused by what?
Viruses
How does the body react to most viruses?
Developing antibodies
The use of meedications to inhibit the reroduction of a viruses is reffered to as what?
Antiviral therapy
What makes antiviral therapy difficult?
The fact that viruses replicate
Unlike antibiotics that kill the invader antiviral drugs kill viruses by what?
Eliminating the materials that the virus needs to reproduce and flourish
What are the 3 ways antivirals kill viruses?
Block Viruses to prevent implant of DNA, Target enzymes and proteins needed for replication, Stregthen hosts ability to fight infection
Antiviral meds such as Acyclovir (Acivir, Acivirax, Cyclovir, Herpex, Zovir) are used to treat viruses that cause what 3 things?
Herpes, Shingles, Chickenpox
Antiviral meds such as Zanamivir (Relenza) and osteltamivir (Tmiflu) are used to treat what?
Infuenza type A & B
CMV infection of the eye can be treated with what antiviral med?
Cidofovir
The antiviral med Relenza is an. Med. While Tamiflu is. .
Inhaled, Orally
What antiviral med is used to treat Hepatitis c?
Ribavirin (virzole)
What class of meds ihis used to fight retroviruses such as HIV?
Antiretroviral meds
Retro Viruses are different in that they have an Blueprint.
RNA blueprint
Whyat cells does HIV specifically attack?
Assembling T4 or CD4 cells (the bodies defensive soldiers)
When HIV grows stronger and lowers T4 cell levels significantly what developes?
AIDS causing patient to suffer from many viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.
Why are retroviruses such as HIV so difficult to treat?
Because Retroviruses embed their genetic material into the infected cell becoming a permenant part of it.
With the treatment of HIV the main goal is to do what?
Prevent or delay the developement of HIV into AIDS for as long as possible with the use of antiviral meds.
Why is it vital for patients with AIDS to take several meds according to a specific regiment to fight the retroviruse, stop its reproduction, and protect their immune system?
Because HIV Mutates Easily
Meds used to treat AIDS are classified how?
By where in the reproductive process of the virus they are most effective.
What are the 6 classifications of meds used to treat AIDS?
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), proteaseinhibitos (PIs), fussion inhibitors, entry inhibitors , and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor
Term reffers to organisms that live on or in other organism (host) that often cause disease?
Parasites
Malaria, worms, Lice, and Scabies are all common what?
Parasitic diseases
Why are most parasitic diseeases not common in North America?
Cold winters, Purified Water, Advanced Septic Systems
These meds include atovaquone/ proguanil (Malarone), chloroquine (Arlen) and are taken to prevent a patient from contracting malaria. What are they?
Antimalarials
To prevent malaria antimalarial meds should be combined with wha?
Use of Personal Protection such as Long Sleves, pants, and Insect repellant
How do protozoan microorganisms differ from bacteria and fungi?
No cell wall
True or false antibiotics are very effective agaist protozoans?
False, they have no cel wall
Antiprotozoal meds include metronidazole (Flagyl, Metro, IV) and trimethoprim-sulfnethoxazole (Bacterim, Septra, Sulfatrim) and are given or to combat infections such as , (infection of intestines)
Orally or IV route, Trichomonas, Giardiasis
The drug of choice in treating a patient with giardiasis is the Antiprotozoal med?
Metronidazole
Tapeworms, Roundworms and Flukes are all treated with what class of meds?
Anthelmetics
Anthelmintics work by targeting the worms or preventing them from .
Nervous System, Absorbing Glucose
Tapeworms dont enter the tissue of the host and are treated with these 2 meds orally?
Albendazole (Albenza) and praziquantel (Biltricide)
Roundworms enter the tissue and are treated with this med?
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
What are the anthelmetics given orally for the treatment of hookworms, Whipworms, Pinworms, and Fluke
Mebendazole (Vermox), pyrantel (Antiminth, Ascarel, Pin-X) and parziquantel (Biltricide)
Term reffers to parasites that live in the blood and found on the body, scalp, and pubic area?
Lice
Lice tend to spread easily among what type f people?
Children
The only type of lice known to spread disease and is spread through close contact in crowded conditions?
Body lice
How are Pubic Lice spread?
Sexual contact
What does the treatment of Lice consist of? (2 things)
Shampoos or Lotions that attack nervous system of Lous or suffocate them
All treatment for Lice must include what? (2)
Treatment of Close Contacts, Cleaning of bedding and any Clothing or Hair care Items used on Patient
Itch mites that burrow into the webbing of the fingers and toes as well as the axillary area. And are spread by skin-to-skin contact. What are they?
ITch mites
What medications are used to treat scabies?
Topical pesticide lotions such as crotamiton (Eurax), lindane, and permethrin (Acticin, Elimite)
These can live for a period of time when not on the body. What are they?
Scabies
What are the two types of immunity?
Natural and Pasive
The type of immunity humans develope through evolution an example of which would be the resistance to distemper is what?
Natural Immunity
Type of immunity created when microbe invades body and body earns to fight it such as childhood chickenpox is?
Active Natural Immunity
This type of immunity is temporary and occurs when a mother passes her immunity to her fetus through the placenta
Passive Natural Immunity
How long does passive natural immunity usually last?
3 to 6 months
Type of immunity aquired when patient is given a vaccination for live, weakened bacteria, viruses, or toxoids, and patients form antibodies is what?
Active artificial immunity
Immunity type that occurs when antibodies from a donor are directly give to the patient to teach their immune system how to fight it?
Passive artificial immunity
How do Vaccines act?
By provoking memory B cells to prepare for a future attack from a similar microbe
These are given to bost the immune system into continuing its protection. What are they?
Boosters
What test may be done to determine whether a person has developed antibodies is a ?
Blood titer, or level
Common side efffects from some vaccines include and and at the injection site.
Side effects, including Fever and Redness and Pain
How long should a patient be observed after giving an vaccine?
15Minutes after injection
This is a diseaase caused by a disorderly and uncontrolled division of cells.
Cancer
What are two major chemicals that can cause a cell to begin to divide abnormally?
Nicotine and Alcohol
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in that they more rapidly and can to surrounding or distant body areas.
Divide more rapidly and can Spread
When cancer cels spread to surrounding body areas it is called what?
Metastasis
What Cancera frequently metastasize to the brain, bones, or liver?
Breast cancer
This type of therapy is usually a combination of several antineoplastic (anticancer) and cytotoxic(destruction to cells) medications what is it?
Chemotherapy
How is chemotherapy done to ensure max effectiveness?
Given in several doses
Now does chenotherapy kill cancer?
Act as toxins or posions to cancer cells
Cancer drugs are given but never .
Intermittently never Continuously
What are the two types of rapidly diving cells that are primarily affected by chemotherapy?
/hair follicle cels, mucous membranes of the GI tract
By what administration route is most chemotherapy delivered?
IV
Due to the long process of chemotherpy what 3 things should the nurse educate the patient about?
IV therapy, Care of Venous lines, Recognition of Signs and Symptoms of Infection
When doing chemotherapy and the IV infusion is increased to quickly or pressure is put on the vein increases the risk of what?
Infiltration
If infiltration occurs with an IV catheter what should the nurse do?
Remove IV catheter, NEw Iv started in different location
Because of the caustic nature of antineoplastic meds it is common practice to insert a ?
Central line or port
When being treated with antineoplastic med a nurse should watch out for what 3 things as they may indicate organ compromise?
Decreased urine output, Change in Skin Color, Changein Blood test result
A patient on Chemo therapy complains of burning pain and aches in their vein. What does the nurse suspect?
Chemo therapy may have irritated or damaged vein wall with resulting phlebitis or thrombosis
A patient on chemo has their vein wall damaged or irritated by the procedure what should the nurse do? (3 possible actions)
Obtain order to Dilute Strength of Med, Lower Infusion Rate, Change Infusion Site
First complication resulting from destruction of hematopoetic cells is what?
Suppressed immune system
Antineoplstic meds are usually given how?
Parenterally, via IM, SC, IV, or Intrathecal route, creams and gels administered topically for some forms of skin cancer
Among the oldest antineoplastic meds that work by altering shape of DNA?
Alkylating agents
This class of antineoplastic meds is particularly useful in treating Lukemia due to blood and bone marrow sensitivity to them. What are they?
Alkylating agents
One possible effect of this antineoplastic meds is permenant infertility in male and female patients. What is it?
Alkylating agents
When handling chemo drugs a nurse should always give and have the order.
As Ordered, Another Colleague Double Check
When handling Chemo drugs a nurse should frequently assess and help the patient as needed.
The IV Site, help With Oral Care
When handling chemo drugs the nurse should assess for related to , , and and administer a as ordered.
Malnutrition related to Nausea, Vomiting, and Diarrhea and administer a Antiemetic
While handling chemo drugs the nurse should encourage , foods, and offer , as well as measure and .
Soft, Mild foods, offer Cool Liquids, as well as measure Input and Output
When handling chemotherapy for a woman the nurse should inquire about what?
Pregnancy and preform test as ordered prior to administering
A nurse handling chemo drugs should assess for and use precautions to decrease infection and protect themselves as well as assess as ordered.
Complications, use Standard Precautions, assess Vital Signs as ordered
A nurse handling chemo drugs should educate tthe patient about and dispose of chemo products according to standards.
The Effects of the Therapy, Facility standards
These antineoplastic meds work by dissrupting critical cell pathways for cancer cells trying to form. What are they?
Antimetabolite meds
Antimetabolite meeds are used to treat , , and tumors and can also be used to treat some cases of .
Ovarian, Breast, and GI tumors, Leukemia
Antimetabolite meds such as 6-mercatopurine, cladribine can be administered , , or .
Orally, Topically, or Through IV
These meds are antibiotics made from bacteria found in the soil and cause cell death by altering DNA molecules and breaking DNA strands. What are they?
Antitumor meds
Although antitumor meds have an antibiotic effect they are used primatrily for their what?
Cytotoxic effects
Belomycin (Blenoxane) is an example of a antitumor med used primarily with other antineoplastic meds to treat and cancer
Hodgkins Lymphoma and Testicular cancer
What is the reason why the use of Antitumor meds is limited?
Lung cells are often damaged
Another name for Plant Extracts is what?
Alkaloids
How do plant extracts (alkaloids) work?
Preventing cell division
Common plants from which plant extracts (alkaloids) include , the plant, the , and a called Camptotheca.
Periwinkle, Mandrake plant, the Pacific Yew,and a Shrub
Plant Extracts (Alkaloids) are also called because they prevent formation of miotic spindle
Mitotic inhibitors
Some hormones such as , ,and hormone are so powerful that they can impair the growth of some Tumors.
Estrogen, Testosterone, and Lutenizing hormone
A tumor that thrives under the effect of estrogen such as breast cancer can be treated with the opposing hormone?
Testosterone
A patient with prostate or testicular cancer may be treated with anti , or .
Antiandrogens, or Testosterone
Type of therapy involves boosting bodys immune system instead of destroying cancer cells is?
Biological therapy
Because biological therapy alters the nature of the immune systems response what is produced?
Severe side Effects
What three drug classess fall under biological therapy?
Biological Response Modifier, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Immunomodulators
Type of biological therapy thatt boost immune system mechanisms that have anttumor effect is called?
IBiological Response Modifier
Interferon alpha 2 A is used to treat and sarcoma, while 2B is used to treat , , sarcoma, and .
2A treat Lukemia, AIDS related Kaposi sarcoma, 2B treat Lukemia, Malignnt Melanoma, AIDS related kaposi sarcoma, and Hepatitis B and C
These Bio therapy drugs work by specifically targeting cancer cells attaching to cells and making themselves recognizable to antigens.
Monoclonal Antibodies
This bio therapy med class uses immunomodulatory Cytokines that are messanger proteins used to deliver messages.
Immunomodulator meds
Monocolonal meds may be used to treat , , , , and cancer as well as and Lymphoma
Colon, Lung, Head, Neck, and Breast Cancer as well as Leukemia and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Immunomodulator class drugs such as
(Revlimid) and (Thalomid) which stimulate the immune system in patients with multiple myeloma.
Lenalidomide and Thalidomide
The use of the biotherapy immunomodulator drug thalidomide (Thalomid) carries a high risk of what?
Birth defects
Patients being treated with the bio therapy immunomodulator drug thalidomide (Thalomid) are encouraged to do what?
Use Multiple Methods of Birth Control to Prevent Pregnancy
This is another common way of killing cancer cells and is used in roughly half of all cancer patients. What is it?
Radiation
What are the targets of radiation therapy?
Tumors
Procedure by which radioactive isotopes are implanted in the form of seeds is called what?
Brachytherapy
A nurse doing radiation therapy should always follow facility protocol about the patient and their after administering radiation.
Isolating the patient and their Body Fluids after adminstering radiation therapy

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