Pharmacology: Chemotherapy

Cancer is the ___ leading cause of death in the US
2nd

define carcinomas
cancers arising from epithelial tissues (e.g.,
skin, gastrointestinal lining)

define sarcomas
cancers arising from mesenchymal tissues (e.g., bone,
striated muscle)

cancers associated with the formed blood elements are
connoted by this suffix “-emia”:
“-emia” (e.g., “leukemia” is the
cancerous proliferation of leukocytes)

potential causes of cancer:
environmental, viral, genetic,
and other elements, (carcinogens)

adequate exercise, a high-fiber diet, and the avoidance
of tobacco products, may be crucial in preventing
certain forms of cancer, t/f?
t

three primary cancer treatment
modalities are available:
surgery, radiation treatment,
and cancer chemotherapy

basic strategy of anticancer drugs:
is to limit cell proliferation by killing or attenuating the growth of the cancerous cells

2 strategies of most anticancer drugs
inhibiting DNA/RNA synthesis and function,
or on directly inhibiting cell division (mitosis)

Why certain antineoplastic drugs are
referred to as cell-cycle-specific:
they exert their effects only at a specific cell cycle

define antineoplastic
Inhibiting or preventing the growth or development of malignant cells

t/f: Cancer cells are all uniform in their rate of replication
and proliferation
f, not all uniform

growth fraction refers to this:
the percentage of proliferating
cells relative to total neoplastic cell population

The cells included in growth fraction are (less, more) susceptible to antineoplastic drugs
more

Define the concept of total cell kill:
refers to the fact
that virtually every tumor cell capable of replicating
must be killed in order to eliminate the cancer completely

t/f: chemotherapy typically kills all malignant cancer cells
f, kills a majority and (hopefully) body’s defense mechanisms take care of the rest (this is known as remission)

t/f: several drugs are
now available that can be used alone or in combinations to reduce the severity of gastrointestinal distress commonly associated with cancer chemotherapy
agents
t

primary groups of antineoplastic drugs :
alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antineoplastic
antibiotics, plant alkaloids, antineoplastic hormones

Alkylating agents are cytotoxic how?
they induce binding within DNA strands and prevent DNA function and replication

alkylating agents are the (smallest, largest) group of anticancer drugs
largest

Antimetabolites restrict neoplastic biosynthesis in this way:
interfere with DNA/RNA replication: either incorporating into the genetic material itself to create fake genetic material, or incorporate into the enzymes required to make genetic material

antibiotic mechanism of action as an anticancer drug is not fully known, t/f?
t

Alkaloids are _________-based compounds frequently
found in plants
nitrogen

vincristine and vinblastine, and newer agents, such
as vinorelbine, paclitaxel, and docetaxel are examples of what anticancer drug?
plant alkaloids

synonym for plant alkaloids:
antimitotic drugs: they impair cell division

specific function of plant alkaloids
inhibit microtubule function during mitosis, thus restricting cellular division

adrenocorticosteroid and the sex
hormone (agonists, antagonists) have shown to be useful in cancer therapy in conjunction with other therapies
antagonists

aromatase
inhibitors such as anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole
(Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) treat cancer growth by doing what?
decrease
estrogen production by
inhibiting the aromatase enzyme that is responsible
for estrogen biosynthesis

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an endogenous cytokine
that normally exerts a number of beneficial (immunologic, immunosuppressive)
responses
immunologic

interferons, interleuklin-2, and
monoclonal antibodies are classified as this:
biologic response modifiers

interleuklin-2 proliferates these tumor cell destroyers
T-cell lymphocytes

Monoclonal antibodies work by being attracted to what?
a specific antigen specific to its target cancer cells only; no damage to healthy cells

what are angiogenesis
inhibitors?
agents that inhibit the formation
of new blood vessels in growing tumors

vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) does this
stimulates blood vessel growth in tumors

t/f: the angiogenesis
inhibitor bevacizumab binds to and thus allow VEGF to function
f, restricts VEGF function

Synonym for Heavy metal compounds
platinum coordination complexes

Heavy metal drugs are anticancer drugs how?
they form
strong cross-links between and within DNA strands, thereby preventing DNA translation and replication

Heavy metal compounds are most similar to which anticancer drug group in function?
alkylating agents

It is postulated that aspirin and similar NSAIDs are anti cancer due to this:
1. their ability for prostaglandin systhesis inhibition 2. their ability to inhibit COX-2, prevalent in certain tumors

Why are Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors useful anticancer drugs?
bc some cancerous cells are born of a dysfunction of tyrosine kinases, leading to
abnormal cell function and proliferation

While treating some leukemias effectively, Arsenic trioxide is highly poisonous and toxic, thus not a first option in treatment, t/f?
t

Asparaginase kills tumor cells in this way:
by breaking down asparaginase in the blood, something certain tumor cells can’t live without

a glycoprotein pump has what adverse treatment effect?
inserted into a cancer cell’s
membrane, it effectively expels different types of
anticancer drugs from the cancer cell

t/f: Cancer cells are capable of developing several methods for self-preservation
against a broad range of cytotoxic drugs.
t

free radicals and antioxidants are being explored to do what during cancer treatment?
reduce chemotherapy-induced
damage to healthy cells

alopecia: hair loss; a common adverse effect of many antineoplastic drugs, which are more effective against rapidly multiplying cells such as those of hair follicles anaplasia: loss of organization and structure; property of cancer cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

alopecia hair loss; a common adverse effect of many antineoplastic drugs, which are more effective against rapidly multiplying cells such as those of hair follicles anaplasia loss of organization and structure; property of cancer cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Types systemic Therapy -Chemotherapy -Anti-hormonal therapy -Immunotherapy -Targeted therapy -Radiotherapy: Targeted isotopes Chemotherapy (Goals) 1.) To cure malignancies: -Childhood ALL -NHL -Hodgkin’s disease -Testicular cancer 2. to improve cure rates (adjuvant therapy): -Breast cancer -Colon cancer -Lung cancer -Bladder cancer …

Antineoplastic refers to an agent that counteracts the development, growth or spread of malignant cells Chemotherapy combinations of drugs are used for palliative effects or complete remissions in early treatment of cancer WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

Types of Cancer – Carcinomas: epithelial tissue: skin and mucous membranes that line lungs and GI tract – Sarcomas: connective tissue: muscle, bone, cartilage – Leukemias: blood-forming tissue: bone marrow – Lymphomas: immune system Reproductive Cycle of a Cell G1: …

how to diagnose cancer Biopsy depends on location and different techniques. fine needle aspiration, breast cancer incisional biopsy, lymphoma core biopsy, sarcoma: abnormal growth in the muscle and soft tissue bronchoscopy, lung cancer bone marrow biopsy, leukemia surgery: treatment complete …

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