Pharmacology – Chapter 7 Psychiatric Drugs

What do Psychotropic Drug treat?
Anti anxiety, Anti depressant, anti psychotic

Sedative Drugs
drug that produce a relaxing,calming effect but usually does not cause sleep

Hypnotics
Drugs that induces sleep

If the barbiturate duration last between 20min or less
Ultra Short acting

If the barbiturate duration last between 3-4 hr
Short Acting

If the barbiturate duration last between 6-8 hr
Intermediate Acting

If the barbiturate duration last between 10-16 hr
Long Acting

Actions of Sedative and Hypnotics
-Mild excitation to mild sedation
-hypnosis
-deep coma

Zaleplon
-miscellaneous sedative
-can be taken later at night if pt has at least 4 hr remaining before active again
-DO NOT take with a high FAT meal or snack

Melatonin
-natural remedy
-hormone produce by the pineal glands in the brain
-used for short term treatment of insomnia
-onset within 30min

Adverse Reactions of sedative and hyponics
drowsiness,agitation,ataxia,lethargy, residual sedation

Anti Anxiety Drugs
drugs to help feelings of apprehension, worry,or uneasiness

Actions of Anti Anxiety Drug
-The benzodiazepines are thought to exert their
tranquilizing effect by potentiating the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory transmitter, by binding to the specific benzodiazepine receptor sites.
-Nonbenzodiazepines exert
their action in various other ways
-hydoxyzine acts on the hypothalamus and brain stem reticular formation

Duration of Anti Anxiety drug
short term only
long term uses can result in dependance and severe withdrawal symtoms

Uses of Anti Anxiety
also used for:sedative,muscle relaxant anti convulsants,treatment of alcohol withdrawal

What are the adverse reaction of an Anti Anxiety
lethargy, apathy, disorientation, anger, restlessness

What is the biggest difference when diagnosing patients whom are psychotic or just going through a life change
EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORS and/or STRESS!

what are the contraindication of an anti anxiety
not to be used by patients with: hypersensitivity, psychosis, acute narrow angel glaucoma, or shock; who are drunks or depress; while breast feeding or pregnant

what is the most common drug used for psychiatric disorder
ANTI DEPRESSANT

Depression effects more in men or women
twice as many women as men
median age of onset in 32

Causes of Depression
occupation, lack of social life, lack of family value, lack of nutrition and exercise

actions of epinephrine
-adrenaline
-chemical release in the bloodstream increasing in heart rate, muscle strength,

actions of norepinephrine
chemical release from sympathetic system in response to stress

what are the 4 types of anti depressants use to treat the disorder
1. tricyclic anti depressant (TCAs)
2.monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
3. Selective Serotine Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
4. Miscellaneous unrelated drugs

Tricyclic Anti Depressant (TCAs)
inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine or serotonin at the presynaptic neurons

monoamine oxidase inhibitors
also known as MAOIs, inhibits activity of monoamine oxidase and increase epinephrine, norepinephrine, an serotonin in the body

Selective Serotine Reuptake Inhibitors
also known as SSRIs, linked to inhibits of neuronal uptake
of the CNS neurotransmitters serotonin
-increase serotonin levels and thus acts as a stimulus to reverse depression

Miscellaneous unrelated drugs
mechanism of actions are not fully understood

What is the action of Monoamine oxidase
an enzyme that is in charge of removing norepinephrine, serotonin,and dopamine in the brain

what are the adverse reactions of Monoamine Oxidase
orthostatic hypotension
avoid eating foods such as: aged cheese,sour cream,red wine, beers

adverse reactions of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
headache
nervousness
dizziness
insomnia
weight loss

adverse reactions of Miscellaneous Anti depressants
-BUPROPION: agitation,dry mouth,insomnia,headache
-TRAZODONE:drowsiness,hostility,anger,skin disorder

contraindication of TCA anti depressants
-should not be giving in 14 days of using an MAOI
-use cautiously in pt w/ hepatic or renal impairment,heart disease,agina, paroxyl small tachycardia,prostatic hypertrophy or history of seizure

contraindication of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
pt with kidney or liver disease, hypertension

contraindication of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
pt with diabetes, liver and kidney disease

Actions of Anti Psychotics Drugs
Inhibits the release of dopamine in the brain and possible increase the firing of nerve cells in certain areas of the brain

Bipolar Disorder
severe mood swings of extreme hypersensitivity to depression

Lithium
-is the drug used to diminish the frequency and intensity of hyperactive (manic) episodes
-not a true anti psychotic drug

Adverse Reactions of Lithium
tremors,nausea,vomiting,thirsty,polyuria

Tardive Dyskinesia
-adverse reaction of an anti psychotics
– a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible,involuntary abnormal movements: lips,tongue,jaw,face,rapid blinking, impaired fingers,toe tapping

adverse reactions to anti psychotics
-photophobia
-urticaria(hives)
-photosensitivity
-behavior change
-headache

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
-adverse reaction of an anti psychotics
-The syndrome is characterized by high fever, stiffness of the muscles, altered mental status (paranoid behavior), and autonomic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction alludes to defective operations of the components of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system, leading to wide swings of blood pressure, excessive sweating and excessive secretion of saliva.

Mood Disorder severe mood changes that become severe and result in impaired functioning within the family, work environment, or interpersonal relationships Depression disorder characterized by a sad or despondent mood WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

dopaminergic neurons- pathway arise in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, in the midbrain) and project to cortical and limbic areas as well as the nucleus accumbens norepinephrine pathway norepinephrine neurons arise in the locus ceruleus (in the brainstem) and project …

Analgesics and Antipyretics Analgesics – Pain relievers Antipyretics – Reduces or Eliminates Fever ex) Acetaminophen, Aspirin, NSAIDS (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug) Opioid Agonists Powerful Pain relieving drugs ex) Morphine Hydromorphone Oxycodone Codeine Methadone Fentanyl WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) Prototype: Nardil Catch-Phrase THINK Diet/ Hypertension Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) Prototype: Nardil Action Increases norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine by preventing their breakdown WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Depressive symptoms sleeping too much or too little, no energy, abnormal eating, physical symptoms, feelings of despair, misery, obsessed with death, avoiding interpersonal interactions Reactive Depression sudden onset resulting from a previous event; example: death of a loved one WE …

Affect feeling that a person experiences when he or she responds emotionally to the environment Biogenic amine one of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, or dopamine; it is thought that a deficiency of these substances in key areas of the brain …

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