Pharmacology Chapter 7

Diuretics
Prevent reabsorption of sodium and water by the kidneys

What are diuretics used to treat?
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Glaucoma

What is the normal potassium level?
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L

Diuretics can mean
delay or cancellation of a case

Hyperkalemia
Excess potassium, and decreased rate and force of heart’s contractions

Very high levels of potassium can cause
tachycardia followed by brachycardia

Hypokalemia
low levels of potassium

Hypokalemia causes
Dysrhythmia, cardiac arrest, muscle weakness, excessive vomiting and diarrhea

Primary function of kidneys
Filter blood and remove water and solutes

Nephron
Microscopic filtering unit that removes water and waste

Bowman’s Capsule
Filtration of fluid and solutes occurs

Tubular reabsorption
Convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, ascending loop

What do loop diuretics do?
Decrease reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions along the whole renal tubule

What is the most common loop diuretic used in surgery?
furosemide (Lasix)

What does furosemide (Lasix) do?
lowers intracranial fluid/pressure, allows diuresis within 5 to 15 minutes; continues approx. 2 hours

Thiazide Diuretics
Inhibit absorption in the end of the ascending loop and beginning of distal convoluted tubule

Potassium-sparing Diuretics
Administered in combination with thiazides and loop diuretics to minimize potassium loss

What do Potassium-sparing Diuretics do?
edema and hypertension and to help to restore potassium levels in hypokalemic patients

What is the adverse affect of Potassium-sparing Diuretics?
hyperkalemia

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
less aqueous humor, thus less intraocular pressure

Carbonic anhydrase
active in formation of aqueous humor

Patient with hypokalemia–is not a stat case
DO NOT OPEN

Patient with hypokalemia–is a stat case
OPEN

Electrolytes Positively or negatively charged molecules Diuretic drugs What keeps sodium and potassium from being reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

acetazolamide (Diamox) – Indications Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. open-angle glaucoma, pre-op treatment of closed-angle glaucoma, seizure disorder, edema, high-altitude sickness. acetazolamide (Diamox) – MOA Inhibits carbonic anhydrase in kidneydecreases water reabsorption, increases Na+ & K+ excretion. Decreases aqueous humor production. WE …

thiazides most frequently used type of diuretic, increasing excretion of water, sodium chloride and potassium loop diuretic on the loop of Henle in the kidney to inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption, which in turn inhibits water reabsorption back into the …

Diuretics purpose to decrease body fluids Water follows sodium Na reabsorption blocked so less H20 reabsorbed Inc. glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Increase Na excretion rate = inc. H20 excretion Thiazide Diuretics Hydrochlorodiazide (HCTZ) or Chlorothiazide (Diuril) Sulfonamide derivatives (antibiotic) WE …

Diuretic Drugs –Drugs that accelerate the rate of urine formation –Result in the removal of sodium and water –Used in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and renal failure Sodium –In the nephron, where sodium goes, water follows -60% to …

doxazosin Alpha-adrenergic blocker Causes dilation of arterioles and veins and relaxes sympathetic effect on bladder and urinary tract. Indicated for BPH relief and HTN Side effects of doxazosin Headache, fatigue, lethargy, dizziness, tachycardia, hypotension, and sexual dysfunction WE WILL WRITE …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy