Pharmacology Chapter 2 (Pharmacologic Principles)

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Additive effects
drug interactions the effects of comb. of 2 or more drugs w/ similiar actions is = to the sum of the individual drug given alone 1+1=2

Adverse drug event
undersirable occurrence related to administering/falling to administer a prescribed med

Adverse drug reaction
unexpected/unintended/undesired/excessive response to a therapeutic dosage.

Adverse effects
general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct result of 1 or more drugs

Agonist
a drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body

Allergic reaction
an immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a perticular medication :a type of advese drug event

Antagonist
a drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more recepitors in a body : also called inhibitors

antagonistic effects
drug interaction in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less then the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone 1+1=<2 caused by blocking or reducing effects on one drug on another

bioavailability
a measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug or route from 0% to 100%

biotransformation
one or more biochemical reaction involving a parent drug occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite either inactive/active known as metabolism

blood-brain barrier
barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (bacteria and viruses)between the bloodstream and the cns but still allows essential substances like oxygen through

chemial name
the name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug

Contraindication
any condition disease state/patient characteristic/current/recent drug therapy that renders a particular form of treatment improper/undesirable

Cytochchrome P-450
general name for large class of enzymes that play a significant roll in drug metabolism

Dependence
compulsive/chronic need for a drug

Dissolution
process where solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the GI tract and become soluble before beig absorbed in circulation

Drug
any chemical that effects the physiologic process of a living organism

Drug action
cellular processes involved in interaction of a drug and body cells (drugs on receptors)

Drug effects
physiological reactions of the body to a drug.therapeutic/toxic & describe how the function of the body as a whole with the drug (onset/peak/duration)

Drug-induced teratogenisis
development of congentital anomalies/defects in the developing fetus caused by toxic effects of a drug

Duration of action
length of time the drug in the system is sufficient to elicit response

Enzymes
protein molecules that catalize 1 or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including the bodys own physiologica processes as well as those related to drug metabolism

First-pass effects
initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed by the GI tract b4 the drug reaches systemic circulation through bloodstream

Generic name
name given to a drug from the US adopted names council much shorter then chemical name not protected by trade mark

Half-life
in pharmacokinetics, its the time required for half of an administered drug to be eliminated by the body/the amount of time it takes the level in the blood of the drug to be reduced by 50%

Idiosyncratic reaction
abnormal/unexpected response to a med, other than allergic reaction,peculiar to an individual patient

Incompatibility
characteristic that causes 2 parenteral drugs/solution to undergo a reaction when mixed/given together results in the chemical deterioration of at least one drug

Intraarticular
within a joint

Intrathecal
within a sheath (injection)

Medication error
any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication used by a patient/healthcare professional. may/may not cause harm

Medication use process
prescribing/dispensing/administration of med and the monitoring of its effects

Metabolite
chemical form of a drug which is the product of 1 or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug

active metabolite
are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if parent drug is inactive (prodrug)

Inactive metabolite
lack pharmacologic activity and are simple drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body (via UT, GI resp tract)

On set of action
the time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing

Parent drug
chemical form that is administered b4 it is metabolized by the bodys biochemical reactions into its active and inactive metabolites.

Peak effect
time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body

Peak level
the maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, measured in blood sample for theuropeutic drug monitoring

Pharmaceutics
science of preparing & dispensing drugs, includig dosage form designs

Pharmacogenetics
study of influence on genetic factors on drug response including nature of genetic aberrations thaat result in absence/overabundance/insufficiency of drug metabolizing enzymes

Pharmacodynamics
study of biochemical and physiological interaction of drugs at their site of activity. physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interation with receptors

Pharmacognosy
study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal source

Pharmacokinetics
rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. phases r absorption,distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs

Pharmacology
broadest term for the study/science of drugs

Pharmacotherapeutics
treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs

Prodrug
inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reaction once it is inside the body

Receptor
molecular structure within/on the outer surface of a cell, the bind specific substance, and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result

Steady state
physiological state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose

Substrates
substances on which an enzyme acts (drug/natural biochemicals)

Synergistic effects
drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of 2 or more drugs with similiar actions is gretaer than the sum of the individual effects 1+1>2

Therapeutic drug monitoring
process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to guage the level of a patients drug exposure and allow adjustments of dose with goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and min toxicity

Therapeutic effect
the desired/intended effect of a particular med

Therapeutic index
ratio btwn the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug

Tolerance
reduced response to a drug after prolonged use

toxic
quality of being poisoness quality

toxicity
condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities

toxicology
study of poisons, including toxic drug effects and applicable treatments

Trade name
commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer (proprietary name)

Trough level
lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Addictive effects Drug interactions in which the effects of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Absorption Uptake of medications for distribution in the body through or across tissues Active ingredient Medicinal ingredient in a …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Trade name Also known as the drug’s brand name Official name A drug name given by the Food and …

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We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Process by which the body takes in or receives a drug Absorption Action by which a drug is released …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Additive effects drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions …

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