Pharmacology – Chapter 2 – Drugs and the Body

absorption
What happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid; intravenous administration causes the drug to directly enter the circulating blood, bypassing the many complications of absorption from other routes.

active transport
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; this process requires energy.

chemotherapeutic agents
synthetic chemicals used to interfere with the functioning of foreign cell populations; this term is frequently used to refer to the drug therapy of neoplasms, but it also refers to drug therapy affecting any foreign cell

critical concentration
the concentration a drug must reach in the tissues that respond to the particular drug to cause the desired effect

distribution
movement of a drug to body tissues; the places where a drug may be distributed depend on the drug’s solubility, perfusion of the area, cardiac output, and binding of the drug to plasma protiens

enzyme induction
process by which the presence of a chemical that is biotransformed by a particular enzyme system in the liver causes increased activity of that enzyme system

excretion
removal of a drug from the body; primarily occurs in the kidneys, but can also occur through the skin, lungs, bile, or feces.

first-pass effect
a phenomenon in which drugs given orally are carried directly to the liver after absorption, where they may be largely inactivated by liver enzymes before they can enter the general circulation; oral drugs frequently are given in higher doses than drugs given by other routes because of this early breakdown

glomerular filtration
the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule

half-life
the time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half of the peak level it previously achieved

hepatic microsomal system
liver enzymes tightly packed together in the hepatic intracellular structure, responsible for the biotransformation of chemicals, including drugs

loading dose
use of a higher dose than that which is usually used for treatment to allow the drug to reach the critical concentration sooner

passive diffusion
Movement of substances across a semi-permeable membrane with the concentration gradient; this process does not require energy

pharmacodynamics
the study of the interactions between the chemical components of living systems and the foreign chemicals, including drugs, that enter living organisms; the way a drug affect a body

pharmacogenomics
the study of genetically determined variations in the response to drugs

pharmacokinetics
the way the body deals with a drug, including absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.

placebo effect
documented effect of the mind on a drug therapy; if a person perceives that a drug will be effective, the drug is much more likely to actually be effective.

receptor site
specific areas on cell membranes that react with certain chemicals to cause an effect within the cell.

selective toxicity
property of a chemotherapeutic agent that affects only systems found in foreign cells without affecting healthy human cells (e.g. specific antibiotics can affect certain proteins or enzyme systems used by bacteria but not by human cells)

Chemotherapeutic agents are drugs that…
interfere with foreign cell functioning, such as invading microorganisms or neoplasms.

Receptor sites…
are protein areas on cell membranes that react with specific chemicals.

Selective toxicity is…
the ability of a drug to attack only those systems found in foreign or abnormal cells.

When trying to determine why the desired therapeutic effect is not being seen with an oral drug, the nurse should consider….
food altering the makeup of gastric juices.

Much of the biotransfomation that occurs when a drug is taken occurs as part of….
the first-pass effect through the liver.

The half-life of a drug…
is determined by a balance of all pharmacokinetic processes.

Jack B. has Parkinson’s disease that has been controlled for several years with levodpa. After he begins a health food regimen with lots of vitamin B6, his tremors return, and he develops a rapid heart rate, hypertension, and anxiety. The nurse investigating the problem discovers that vitamin B6 can speed the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, leading to these problems. The nurse would consider this problem…
a drug-drug interaction.

Pharmacodynamics facts Pharmacodynamics is the science of dealing with interactions between living organisms and foreign chemicals. Each living system has chemical reactions occurring continuously in the body. When other chemicals (drugs) are added to the body other effects occur. Drug …

Dissolution of a drug pharmaceutic Effect of a drug action because of hereditary pharmacogenetic WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Four process of a drug movement to …

adverse effect drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasanr or even dangerous brand name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called trade name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Pharmacology The study of the biological effects of chemicals in clinical practice. Side Effect Expected but unintended effect of a drug WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

Pharmaceutic Phase (First Phase) The drug becomes a solution so that it can cross the biologic membrane **When drug is given subQ, IM, or IV routes there is NO pharmaceutic phase. Pharmacokinetic Phase (Second Phase) Is composed of 4 processes: …

Lipoprotein the combination of triglyceride or cholesterol with apolipoprotein Very low density lipoprotein produced by the liver, transports endogenous lipids to the cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

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