-Are receptors for the sympathetic neurotransmitters
-Alpha-adrenergic, Beter-adrenergic, and dopaminergic receptors
Response: dilation of renal, mesenteric, coronary, and cerebral blood vessels.
catecholamine then binds to receptors and causes a physiologic response
Relaxation of GI smooth muscles (decreased
Constriction of bladder sphincter
Contraction of uterus
Contraction of pupillary muscles of the eye (dilated pupils)
Increased heart rate (positive chronotropic effect)
Increased conduction through AV node (positive dromotropic effect)
Uterine relaxation, glycogenolysis in liver, increased renin secretion in kidneys, relaxation of GI smooth muscle (decreased motility)
A. The bronchodilator
B. The corticosteroid
C. it does not matter which one is taken first.
albuterol, ephedrine, epinephrine, formoterol, levarbuterol, metaproterenol, pirbuterol, salmeterol, and terbutaline
D. salmeterol and fluticasone combination (Advair Diskus)
Rationale: Albuterol is a beta2 agonist that is used for acute bronchospasms
intranasal (topical) application causes constriction of dilated arterioles and reduction of nasal blood flow, thus decreasing congestion
ephedrine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, and tetrahydrozoline
Examples: epinephrine, naphazoline, phenylephrine, tetrahydrozoline
Used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock; various alpha and beta receptors affected
Stimulates beta1 receptors on heart muscle (myocardium); increases cardiac output by increasing contractility (positive inotropy), which increases the stroke volume, especially in patients with heart failure.
Intravenous drug; given by continuous infusion
Potent dopaminergic as well as beta1- and alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Low dosages: can dilate blood vessels in the brain, heart, kidneys, and mesentery, which increases blood flow to these areas (dopaminergic receptor activity).
Higher infusion rates: improve cardiac contractility and output (beta1-adrenergic receptor activity).
Highest doses: vasoconstriction (alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity).
Acts directly on both the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors of tissues innervated by the SNS
Prototypical nonselective adrenergic agonist
Administered in emergency situations
One of the primary vasoactive drugs used in many advanced cardiac life support protocols
Direct-stimulating beta-adrenergic effects on the heart (beta1-adrenergic receptors)
No stimulation to beta2-adrenergic receptors of the lung
Treatment of hypotension and shock
Administered by continuous infusion
used primarily for short term treatment to raise blood pressure in patients in shock
Control of supraventricular tachycardia
vasoconstriction in regional anesthesia
Topical opthalamic drug
A. Slow the intravenous infusion.
B. Stop the intravenous infusion.
C. Inject the area with phentolamine.
D. Notify the physician health care provider.
Rationale: Infiltration of an intravenous solution containing an adrenergic drug may lead to tissue necrosis from excessive vasoconstriction around the IV site.
-Headache, restlessness, excitement, insomnia, euphoria
-Palpitations (dysrhythmias), tachycardia, vasoconstriction, hypertension
-Loss of apeptite,dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, taste changes
– MIld tremors, headaches, nervousness, dizziness
-Increased heart rate, palpitations (dysrhythmias), fluctuations in blood pressure
-Sweating, nausea, vomiting, and muscle cramps
use clear IV solutions
Use an infusion pump
Infuse drug slowly to avoid dangerous cardiovascular effects
monitor cardiac rhythm
A. Check the infusion site for possible extravasation.
B. Increase the infusion rate.
C. Check the patient’s vital signs.
D. Order an electrocardiogram.
A. determine the time of the child’s last meal.
B. monitor Spo2 with a pulse oximeter.
C. monitor the child’s temperature.
D. provide education on asthma management.
Rationale: During administration of albuterol, a fast-acting beta2 agonist, the nurse should monitor the patient’s respiratory status including SpO2 (with a pulse oximeter), respiratory rate, and breath sounds to ensure that the medication is having a therapeutic effect. The other items can be handled after her respiratory status is stable