Pharmacology Chapter 16 Gastrointestinal Drugs

neutralizing gastric hydrochloric acid and are widely available in many over-the-counter (OTC) preparations for the relief of indigestion, heartburn, and sour stomach

Antiulcer drugs
are use to relive symptoms association with ulcers and to promote healing

are used in the treatment of occasional constipation as well as for preparation of the bowel prior to some medical tests and surgery

are drugs used to treat or prevent nausea and vomiting as well as motion sickness often associated with travel

are medications that are used in the treatment of excess gas in the stomach causing bloating and for people who experience gas pains following surgery

1. aluminum
2. calcium carbonate
3. aluminum/magnesium

Purpose Antacids
Neutralize gastric hydrochloric acid

Side Effects with Frequent Use Antacids
Urinary calculi and renal complications

Contraindications or Cautions Antacids
Congestive heart failure
Renal pathology or history of renal calculi
Cirrhosis of the liver
Dehydration or electrolyte imbalance

Antiulcer Agents
1. Tagamet and Zantac
2. Pepcid and Axid
3. Carafate
4. Cytotec
5. Prilosec, Prevacid,

Purpose Antiulcer Agents
Reduce gastric acid secretion by acting as histamine2 receptor antagonists

Side Effects with Frequent Use
Mental confusion, especially in older adults

Contraindications or Cautions Antiulcer Agents
Impaired renal function
Liver dysfunction
Pregnancy, lactation

Coats stomach

Side Effects with Frequent Use Cytotec
Menstrual irregularities; spontaneous abortion, possibly incomplete, with potentially dangerous uterine bleeding, maternal or fetal death

Side effects with Frequent Use Prilosec
Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness

For Inflammatory Bowel Disease
1. sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
2. mesalamine (Rowasa)

Purpose Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Anti-inflammatory activity in the GI tract
Management of ulcerative colitis

Side Effects with Frequent Use Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nausea and vomiting
Gastric distress

Contraindications or Cautions Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Renal or hepatic impairment
Allergy to salicylates or sulfonamides with sulfasalazine

Antidiarrhea Agents
1. Kaopectate
2. Lomotil
3. Imodium
4. Lactinex

Side Effects with Frequent Use Antidirrhea agents
Transient constipation on occasion

Contraindications or Cautions Antidirrhea agents
Contraindicated without medical supervision in infants and older adults

1. simethicone

Purpose Antiflatulent
Used in the symptomatic treatment of gastric bloating and post-operative gas pains

Bulk-Forming Laxative
psyllium (Metamucil)

Purpose Bulk-forming laxative
Evacuation of the intestine in simple constipation unrelieved by natural methods

Contraindications or Cautions bulk-forming laxative
Patients with acute abdominal pain, partial obstruction, dysphagia, or esophageal obstruction

Stool Softeners
Used to promote evacuation of the intestine, especially for pregnant or nursing women and children with hard, dry stools

Side Effects with Frequent Use stool softeners
Occasional mild, transitory GI cramping

Contraindications or Cautions stool softeners
Acute abdominal pain or prolonged use without medical supervision
Caution to avoid stool softeners that also contain stimulant laxatives

Saline Laxative
Milk of Magnesia

Purpose milk of magnesia
Used to promote evacuation of intestine

Side Effects with Frequent Use milk of magnesia
Electrolyte imbalance
CNS symptoms, including weakness, sedation, and confusion
Cardiac, renal, and hepatic complications

Contraindications or Cautions milk of magnesia
Long-term use
Congestive heart failure or other cardiac disease
Edema, cirrhosis, or renal disorders
Acute abdominal pain

Stimulant Laxatives
1. cascara sagrada
2. senna
(X-prep, Senokot)
3. bisacodyl (Dulcolax)

Purpose stimulant laxatives
Used to produce strong peristaltic activity

Side Effects with Frequent stimulant laxatives
Abdominal cramps or dis-comfort
Loss of normal bowel function with prolonged use
Electrolyte disturbances with prolonged use

Contraindications or Cautions stimulant laxatives
Acute abdominal pain or abdominal cramping
Ulcerative colitis
Pregnancy, lactation
Long-term use

Purpose stimulant laxatives
Danger of laxative dependence and loss of normal bowel function; do not use frequently or for prolonged length of time

Antiemetics (name)
1. prochlorperazine (Compazine)
2. thiethylperazine (Torecan)
3. trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
4. promethazine (Phenergan)
5. dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
6. scopolamine (Transderm-Scop)

Side effects antiemetics
Confusion, anxiety, restlessness
Sedation, drowsiness
Dry mouth
Blurred vision
Extrapyramidal reactions, especially in children and older adults with Compazine

Contraindications or cautions antiemetics
Children and adolescents
Pregnancy, lactation
Debilitated, emaciated, or geriatric patients
Closed-angle glaucoma
Prostatic hypertrophy
Cardiac arrhythmias
Seizure disorders

For Vertigo/Ménière’s Disease
meclizine (Antivert)

Purpose Vertiigo/Meniere’s disease
Prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and/or vertigo associated with motion sickness
Symptomatic treatment of vertigo associated with the vestibular system

Side effects Vertigo/Meniere’s disease
Confusion, anxiety, restlessness
Sedation, drowsiness
Dry mouth
Blurred vision
Extrapyramidal reactions in children and older adults with Compazine

Upper GI Motility Stimulant
Used to stimulate upper GI motility

Side effects GI motility stimulant
Drowsiness, fatigue, lassitude
Depression (severe)
Extrapyramidal reactions or irreversible tardive dyskinesia

Contraindications GI motility stimulant
Young adults
Geriatric patients, especially long-term

thiazides most frequently used type of diuretic, increasing excretion of water, sodium chloride and potassium loop diuretic on the loop of Henle in the kidney to inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption, which in turn inhibits water reabsorption back into the …

drug therapy for peptic ulcers histamine 2 receptor antagonist( Zantac) proton pump inhibitors( Prilosec) mucosal protectant antacids prostaglandin e analogs( misoprostol cytotec) antibiotics( amoxicillin) drug therapy for nausea serotonin antagonist( Zofran) antihistamine prokinetic(Reglan/ metoclopramide) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Peptic Ulcer drugs 1. Histamine2-receptor antagonists 2. Proton pump inhibitors 3. Mucosal protectatnts 4. Antacids 5. Prostaglandin E analogs 6. Antibiotics Histamine2-Recepeter Antagonists treats – Gastric and duodenal ulcers – Heartburn, dyspepsia – Erosive esophagitis – GERD – Aspiration pneumonitis …

The nurse is providing teaching to a patient who will be taking the laxative bisacodyl (Dulcolax). Which statement by the nurse is appropriate during this teaching session? a. “You can crush the laxative tablets for improved action.” b. “Take the …

Overview This chapter describes drugs used to treat four common medical conditions involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: 1) peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); 2) chemotherapy-induced emesis; 3) diarrhea; and 4) constipation. Many drugs described in other chapters also …

Antineoplastic refers to an agent that counteracts the development, growth or spread of malignant cells Chemotherapy combinations of drugs are used for palliative effects or complete remissions in early treatment of cancer WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

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