Pharmacology – Chapter 16

Antacids
Agent that acts by neutralizing gastric hydrochloric acid. Relief of indigestion & heartburn. Used to treat ulcers. Take solo & short term (Tums, Mylanta, Malox)

GI Drugs
Contraindicated in: Elderly, young children, and pregnancy

Contraindications – Antacid
Do not take antacid if cardiac, renal, liver disease or fluid retention.

GERD
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Anti-ulcer Agents
Reduce gastric acid secretions by acting as histamine blockers (ex Tagamet, Zantac) used for relief of acid intergestion & heartburn. Short term use

Esophagitis
GI bleeding

Gastric juice reduction
On a regular basis for extended periods can deplete intrinsic factor necessary for absorption of B12. Can lead to anemia, confusion, disoriented, numbness of extremities.

Prilosec – PPI (tabs or caps)
A gastric anti-secretory agent (Proton pump inhibitor) PPI. Use short term. Symptomatic relief of GERD, gastric ulcer, erosive esophagitis & heartburn. Take on empty stomach

Prevpac
A combo medication used to treat recurrent peptic ulcer disease (amoxicillan, clarithromycin & prevacid) 3 meds X14 days

Helidac
A combo medication (tetracycline, methronidazole, bismuth salicylate.

Helicobacter Pylori Treatment
Used for patient w/resistance to standard anti-ulcer therapies

Antispasmodics/Anticholinergics
Hyoscyamine – Levsin: Is an anticholinergic used as combo therapy in management of peptic ulcer disease. Also used as a preoperative medication to control salivation & excessive secretions Side effects w/older adults

GI Anticholinergics
Work to decrease motility in the GI tract

IBD – Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Salicylates – Asacol used to manage Crohn’s Disease.

Asacol – route oral
Taken orally – EC so it can bypass the stomach & upper intestines. Safe for long-term use

Glucocorticoids
Prednisone are used to treat moderate to severe forms of IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

Antidiarrhea Agents
Kaopectate: medication used to reduce the number of loose stools. Should not use meds for more than 48 hours

Lomitol
Drying of secretions & dehydration) (Anticholinergic effect)

Lactobacillus Acidophilus – Lactinex:
Administer for simple diarrhea caused by antibiotics, infection, colostomy

Anti-flatulent
Are used to treat gastric bloating and postoperative gas pains. Helps to break up gas bubbles in GI tract. Mylicon suspension tabs taken after meal & at bedtime

Laxatives
Drugs to promote evacuation of the intestines. (Citrate of Magnesium) OTC are overused

Cathartics or Purgatives
Promote rapid evacuation

Natural Methods
High fiber diet, adequate fluid intake, exercise

Anti-ulcer
Drug that reduces gastric acid secretions or acts to prevent or treat gastric or duodenal ulcers

Laxative forms
Bulk forming, stool softeners, emollients, stimulant laxatives

Bulk-forming
Metamucil – used in older patients. Useful in maintaining regularity for patients with Diverticulosis

Osmotic Laxative
Colace – is a rectal suppository, stool softener

Saline Laxative
Milk of Magnesia

Stimulant Laxative
Correctol

GERD
A backward flow of gastric secretions into the esophagus causing inflammation & discomfort. GERD is treated with drugs to accelerate gastric emptying

Superinfection
New infection w/different resistant bacteria or fungi

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antacids Promote ulcer healing by neutralizing hydrochloric acid and reducing pepsin activity, they do not coat the ulcer. Two types: Those that have systemic and those that have nonsytemic effect. duodenal ulcer Caused by hypersecretion of acid from the from …

Omeprazole (Prilosec) Therapeutic? Pharmacologic? T: Anti-Ulcer Agents P: Proton Pump Inhibitor Omeprazole (Prilosec) Main Action Blocks release of HCI from patietal cells. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

Antiemetic A drug that inhibits impulses that cause vomiting from going to the stomach. Crohn disease An inflammatory bowel disease affecting the entire GI tract from mouth to anus. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Antacids neutralizing gastric hydrochloric acid and are widely available in many over-the-counter (OTC) preparations for the relief of indigestion, heartburn, and sour stomach Antiulcer drugs are use to relive symptoms association with ulcers and to promote healing WE WILL WRITE …

Mannitol reduces the increased intracranial pressure. Osmotic diuretic. Vitamin B12 helps in the formation of RBC. malabsorption syndrome WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Benztropine (Cogentin) anti-parkinson …

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