Pharmacology Chapter 15, 16, & 17

GI System
Where the body processes food and liquids

Digestion
Breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones

Absorption
Uptake of essential nutrients into the bloodstream

The GI Tract includes
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Intestines
Colon
Rectum

Peristalsis
Process of coordinated muscle contraction that keeps food particles moving through the GI tract

GI Motility
– moving food through the intestine
-increased motility can cause diarrhea and decreased can cause constipation

Process of Absorption
From stomach, food particles enter small intestine where most digestion and nutrient absorption takes place due to large surface area. A large precentage of drugs administered orally are absorbed here also.

First Pass Effect
Metabolism of drugs by the liver before they reach their target in the body. This results in the full dose not reaching the body.

Diarrhea
Excessive, soft, or watery stools; frequent bowel movements

Constipation
Small stool size, hard stools, or the feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation; infrequent bowel movement

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Heartburn characterized by a burning or sensation of warmth starting in the gut or chest that may radiate to the neck; the lower esophageal sphincter allows stomach contents to move up into the esophagus, where acidic juices cause tissue damage and pain.

Ulcers
Sores or patches of dead tissue along the walls of the GI tract

Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
Ulcers in the stomach caused by a bacterial parasite known as H pylori

Hemorrhoids
Bleeding and irritation when a blood vessel of the hemorrhoidal cushion ruptures

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Chronic disease that features frequent and painful constipation or diarrhea; exact cause is unknown, but is thought to be due to muscle dysfunction in the intestines, leading to altered GI motility

Ulcerative Colitis
Excessive inflammation of the GI tract causing ulcers
This damage cause abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea

Crohn’s Disease
Very similar to UC, but it manifest outside of the GI tract
Different in that it is classified as an autoimmune disease

IBW (Ideal Body Weight)
the weight for a given height that is associated with maximum longevity and health

ABW
Actual Body Weight

BMI (Body Mass Index)
Another way to access appropiate weight for height

Obesity
Overnutrition; sognificantly more fat that is considered normal or healthy

Malnutrition
A lack of adequate nutrient intake to supply basic metabolic needs

Marasmus
A chronic condition caused by inadequate caloric and protein intake over a prolonged time

Cachexia
The wasting away of muscle and fat tissue due to starvation and the effects of cancer

Kwashiorkoir
a condition in which caloric intake is adequate, but protein intake is uncommon

Trace Elements
Essential minarals needed for normal physiological functions

Chromium
glucose tolerance and insulin levels

Copper
affects RBCs and WBCs

Iodine
Affects thyroid horomones

Iron
Hemoglobin of RBCs

Manganese
Metabolism and enzymatic reactions

Selenium
Reduces oxidative stress

Zinc
Immune system, wound healing, blood clotting

Enternal Nutrition
– feeding a patient through a tube into the GI tract
-preferred over parental feeding
– keeps GI tract functional and prevents abdominal infections

Parenteral Nutrition
Feeding a patient through an IV when the digestive tract cannot by used

TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition)
– made with fluids, electrolytes, nutrients, vitamins, and minerals
– administered through a surgically placed central line

Appetite Suppressants
Stimulate the CNS and send a signal of fullness and satisfaction to the brain

Lipase Inhibitors
Prevents enzymes in the intestines from the breaking down fats into a form that can be absorbed. Fat then passes through intestines and out of rectum

Endocrine System
A collection of glands in various parts of the body that produce hormones that regulate bodily functions

Hormones
Regulate metabolism, growth, and fluid balance

Pituitary Gland
– controls other glands
– plays a key role in growth, onset of puberty, reproduction cycles

Thyroid Gland
Releases T3 and T4 in response to TSH which is released from the pituitary gland

Adrenal Glands
Located on top of the kidneys

Adrenal Cortex
Outer layer; releases corticosteriods, mineralocorticoids, and glucocortocoids

Adrenal Medulla
Inner layer; produces adrenaline

Hypothalamus
Produces corticotrophin (releasing factor that stimulates pituitary gland)

Pancreas
Produces and releases digestive enzymes into intestine

Alpha Islet Cells
Produce glucagon

Beta Islet Cells
Produce insulin

Diabetes
Elevated blood glucose that results in damage to small blood vessels and nerve tissue

Type 1
Least common; affects about 10%; also known as juvenile diabetes

Type 2
Accounts for the other 90%; first treated with oral meds and eventually insulin is needed; these patients also may have high BP, high cholesterol, and triglycerids, high risk for cardiovascular disease

Gestational Diabetes
Caused by excess hormones produced during pregnancy; mimics type 2 and often proceeds it

Nephropathy
Damage to kidneys affecting there ability to filter blood

Neuropathy
Damage to tiny nerves in the extremities

Retinopathy
Damage to retinal tissue in the eyes

Hypoglycemia
Low Blood Sugar

Hypothyroidism
Underactive thyroid

Hyperthyroidism
Overactive thyroid

Addison’s Disease
Deficiency of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Cushing’s Disease
Overproduction of steroid hormones, can be caused by tumors in the adrenal gland

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