Pharmacology Chapter #12

1. GABA
inhibitory neurotransmitter involved with the effects of diazepam tranquilizers; originally though to account for the majority of ivermectin’s clinical signs until glutamate was discovered to be the primary neurotransmitter that accounts for ivermectin effects

2. Proglottids
tapeworm segments

3. Nicotinic Receptors –
type of cholinergic receptors that, when stimulated, produce muscle tremors and eventually paralysis

4. Coccidiostats
– compounds that specifically inhibit coccidia protozoa

5. Mydriasis
– means “dilated pupil”

6. Antitrematodal
– term used to describe compounds that kill flukes

7. Vermifuge
– means that the drug expells the worms while they are syill alive

8. Delayed Neurotoxicity
– cndition that occurs after recovery from acute organophosphate toxicosis

9. Muscarinic receptors
– type of cholinergic receptors that, when stimulated, produce the classic SLUDDE signs of organophosphate toxicosis

10. Endectocides
– antihelmentics that kill both internal and external parasites

11. Acetylcholine
– neurotransmitter associated with parasympathetic effects

12. Antihelmintic
– general term used to describe compounds that kill a wide range of internal parasites

13. P-glycoprotein
– molecule responsible for moving drugs like ivermectin from the CNS into the blood; part of the blood-brain functional mechanism

14. Antinematodal
– term used to describe compounds that kill worms that are round in cross-section

15. Glutamate
– inhibitory neurotransmitter though noe to account for the effects of ivermectin

16. Emboli
– refers to something that floats along in the blood vessel until it lodges and causes obstruction (eg., degenerating heartworm pieces obstructing pulmonary arteries)

17. Adulticide
– type of drug that kills adult worms

18. Antiprotozoal
– term used to describe compounds that kill protozoa

19. Ectoparasites
– parasites that live on the outside of the animal’s body (e.g., fleas, ticks)

20. Hemoptysis
– means “coughing up blood”

21. Ovicidal
– means “kills parasite eggs”

22. Acetylcholinesterase
– enzyme that destroys acetylcholine to terminate acetylcholine’s action

23. Pruritus
– means “itching”

24. Anticestodal, cestocides, or taeniacides
– term used to describe compounds that kill tapeworms

25. Microfilaricide
– compounds that kill the young produced by adult heartworms

26. Selective Toxicity
– means that an insecticide is mich more poisonous to the parasite than it is to the host animal

27. A. Imidacloprid
– The active ingredient in Advantage®

B. Lufenuron
– The active ingredient in Program®

C. Melarsomine
– The active ingredient in Immiticide®

D. Selamectin
– The active ingredient in Revolution®

E. Milbemycin Oxime
– The active ingredient in interceptor®

F. Ivermectin
– The active ingredient in Heartguard®

G. Milbemycin Oxime + Lufenuron
– The active ingredient in Sentinel®

H. Fenbenazole
– The active ingredient in Panacur®

I. Pyrantel
– The active ingredient in Strongid®, Nemex®

J. Praziquantel
– The active ingredient in Droncit®

K. Fipronil
– The active ingredient in Frontline®, Top Spot®

L. Nitenpyram
– The active ingredient in Capstar®

28. DRUG → Pyrethrins
– one of the safest groups of external insecticides; characterized by its quick knock down; made from chrysanthemum

29. DRUG → Macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins)
– group of internal and external antioarasitic drugs that works primarily by dtimulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glutamate’s receptors

30. DRUG → Amitraz
– oroginally developed for demodicosis, extremely toxic if ingested, α2 agonist

31. DRUG → Ivermectin
– toxicosis from this endectocide results in CNS depression and is ehhibited by ataxia, depression, blindness, and coma; toxicosis may last for several days

32. DRUG → Paperazine
– safe roundworm medication found in gricery stores; once-a-month OTC dewormer; no effect on worms other than ascarids; vermifuge

33. DRUG → Selamectin
– topically administered endectocide; used to control fleas and ticks, ear mites, sarcoptic mange, and as a heartworm preventative for dogs and cats; avermectin-type drug

34. DRUG → Amprolium
– antiprotozoal used primarily in calves and avian species; similar in structure to thiamin and therefore acts by causing a thiamin deficiency

35. DRUG → Melarsomine
– arsenical adulticide against Dirofilaria; requires a deep IM injection

36. DRUG → Macrolides (avermectins and milbenycins)
– drugs blocked from getting to the brain by P-glycoprotein

37. DRUG → Organophosphates and carbamates
– group of insecticides that works by blocking acetylcholinesterase

38. DRUG → Moxidectin (Cydectin in cattle, Quest in horses)
– milbemycin type of antiparasitic approved for use in cattle and horses; was that active ingredient in the 6-month heartworm preventative ProHeart®

39. DRUG → Thiabendazole
– prototype drug for the benzimidazoles; attacks β-tubulin in the parasite cells; has antiinflammatory antifungal activity so is used in some ear medications

40. DRUG → Ponazuril
– antiprotozoal drug developed to be effective against the agen that causes EPM

41. DRUG → Ivermectin
– microfilaricide most commonly used (not milbemycin)

42. DRUG → Fenbendazole
– benzimidazole antihelmentic; approved for use in dogs, horses, and livestock; must be given for 3 consecutive days in the dog to be effective; includes the trade name livestock medication Safe-Guard®

43. DRUG → Pyrantel
– antinematodal; considered very safe; effective against hookworms as well as ascarids; pleasant-tasting liquid suspension administered PO; often combined with other antihelmentics like praziquantel or inermectin

44. DRUG → Organophosphate
– toxic signs include SLUDDE signs or muscle tremors progressing to paralysis

45. DRUG → Praziquantel
– single-treatment tapeworm medication; effective against many different species of tapeworms, including Echinococcus

46. DRUG → Ivermectin
– heartworm preventative avermectin approved for use in cats and dogs once a month as an oral medication; was the first canine heartworm preventative

47. DRUG → Milbemycin Oxime
– orally administered macrolide heartworm preventative but not an avermectin; also approved to control hookworm, ascarid, and whipworm infections

48. DRUG → Imidacloprid
– topically applied flea insecticide; put between the shoulder blades; wide margin of safety; blocks nicotinic cholinergic receptor site for acetylcholine

49. DRUG → Lufenuron
– flea tablet; inhibits chitin formation in larvae and egg; is an IDI

50. DRUG → Diethylcarbamazine (DEC)
– daily administered heartworm preventative medication; has largely been replaced by the monthly use of avermectins and milbemycins

51. DRUG → Milbemycin
– macrolide heartworm preventative for use in cats and dogs that is similar in structure and mechanism of action as the avermectins; also approved to treat ear mites in cats

52. DRUG → Metronidazole
– antibacterial drug that is also antiprotozoal, especially Giardia; has neurologic side effects at high doses

53. DRUG → Doramectin
– injectable and pour-on avermectin-type drug approved for use in cattle and swinw to treat several internal parasites, grubs, lice and mange; has been reported to have caused severe adverse reactions in other species, including fatalities in dogs

54. DRUG → Organophosphates and carbamates
– insecticides associated with SLUDDE signs

55. DRUG → Piperonyl Butoxide
– added to pyrethrins to increase their killing activity; a synergist drug

56. DRUG → Fipronil
– topically applied insecticide; removes the inhibitory effect of GABA on the nervous system, causing overstimulation of the insect and death; is very safe because the receptor site for this drug in insects is very different from the receptor site in mammals; can be toxic to some fish

57. DRUG → Atropine
– antidote for organophosphate or carbamate toxicosis; readily available in ,ost veterinary practices; blocks acetylcholine receptor

58. DRUG → Mitenpyram
– oral flea tablet adulticide; rapid death of fleas; nicotine-type compound, so stimulates muscle movement of the fleas initially then paralyzes them; animals may have a transient period of increased itching after administration because of seizurelike activity of the fkeas as they die

59. DRUG → Pyriproxyfen
– JHM for fleas; larvae do not mature to adults; adulticide activity is minimal; similar to methoprene

60. DRUG → DEET (diethyltoluamide)
– insect repellant often used in human repellant products; can cause neurologic side effects

False, Microfilaria are not capable of developing into adult heartworms until they are picked up by the mosquito and molt within the mosquito. The infective larvae injected into another animal by the mosquito migrate through tissue and spen a relatively small amount of time in the blood. Also, bcause there are very few migrating infective larvae in the body, the chances of the infective larvae being in the blood and being taken up in a transfusion are very, very, slim. –
True or False? Heartworm disease can be acquired from a blood transfusion taken from a heartworm-positive dog that has circulating microfilaria.

False, Cats with adult heartworms are not treated with adulticides, as the risk of fatal emboli and lung inflammatory reactions is too great. Thus the adult heartworms are allowed to die naturally one at a time and any inflammatory reaction is treated with corticosteroids or other medications. –
True or False? Cats should be treated for heartworm with melaesomine.

False, Lacrimation (tear production) –
True or False? The “L” in SLUDDE stands for “locomotion”.

False, It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Stimulation of the glutamate receptor inhibits the nervous system, and blocking glutamate’s effect allows domination of excitatory neurotransmitters. –
True or False? Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter.

True –
True or False? Live ascarid worms may be expelled after administration of piperazine

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