Pharmacology Chapter 12- Drugs for Degenerative Diseases and Muscles

Can medications cure Neurologic Degenerative Diseases?

What is Parkinsons?
the death of neurons that produce dopamine

What are some symptoms of Parkinsons?
– muscle rigidity
– masked face
– postural immobility

What are the goals of medicine to treat Parkinsons?
– increase ability of the person to live as normal as possible

What is the most common type of drug to treat Parkinsons?
a dopaminergic drug

Why can we not give dopamine to people with Parkinsons?
because dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier

What is the prototype drug for dopaminergic drugs for Parkinsons?
– used to treat Parkinsons
– precursor to dopamine
– can take several weeks or months to take effect
– can cause involuntary movement an nausea
– twitching may be a sign of toxicity
– you can only stop this drug gradually

What is the prototype drug for Anticholinergic drug for Parkinsons?
– used to treat parkinsons and EPS effects
– blocks excess cholinergic stimulation
– may cause dry mouth, blurry vision, and constipation
– don’t use with alcohol or OTC cold medicine

What is Alzheimers
– affects memory. thinking, and behavior
– structural damage to the brain
– progressive disease that is irreversible and not curable
– if the disease is too far along medications are ineffective

What are acetylcholinesterase inhinitors?
– used for alzheimers
– intensifying acetylcholine at cholinergic receptors
– improve functions of daily living

What is the prototype drug for acetylcholinesterase inhinitors?
– used for alzheimers
– enhance the effects of acetylcholine
– can take up to six months to see maximum benefits
– can cause vomiting and diarrhea

What is Multiple Sclerosis?
– damage to the myelin in the CNS
– unknown cause
– progressive disease
– fatigue, heat sensitivity, impaired thinking, bad balance, blurred speech

What to do when treating Multiple Sclerosis?
– manage symptoms
– reduce inflammation, prevent attacks on the nervous system

What is a muscle spasm?
involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscle group

What are clonic spasms?
rapid repeated contractions

What is a tonic spasm?
a single prolonged contraction

What drug therapies are used for muscle spasms?
– combinations of analgesics
– antinflammatory
– skeletal muscle relaxer

What are Antispasmodics?
relieve stiffness and rigidity of muscles

What is the prototype drug of Antispasmodics?
– short term relief of muscle spasms (2-3 weeks) w/o interfering with muscle function
– depress motor activity and increase norepinephrine
– can cause drowsiness, dizziness, and dry mouth

What is Spasticity?
muscle contraction that remains contracted
(can cause damage to CNS)

What are effective treatments for Cerebral Palsy, Spinal Cord injury, and Stroke?
medications and physical therapy

What is the direct acting prototype drug for Antispasmatics?
– skeletal muscle relaxer
– mostly to relieve muscles in head and neck
– can cause muscle weakness and drowsiness
also used for malignant hyperthermia

What do neuromuscular blocking agents do?
– bind to nicotinic receptors
– relax muscles only, nothing to do with pain

What are nondepolarizing blocking agents?
– compete with acetylcholine for receptor
– muscle remains relaxed
– for long surgical procedures

What are depolarizing blocking agents?
– bind to acetylcholine receptor
– continuous depolarization
– for patients with electroconvulsive therapy, intubation, on a ventilator, or for short surgical procedures

What is the prototype drug for neuromuscular blocking agents?
– given by anesthesiologist
– binding to acetylcholine receptor
– continuous depolarization

Cholinergic Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Basic Functions of the Nervous System • Recognizes the changes in the internal environment and the external environment. • It processes and integrates environmental changes that are perceived. • It also reacts to …

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adverse effect drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasanr or even dangerous brand name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called trade name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

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