Pharmacology Chapter 1 review – Introduction to Pharmacology and the History of Drugs

Describe the linguistic origin/etiology of pharmacology:
Greek word pharmakon meaning medicine and the suffix -logy meaning study of.

Describe the linguistic origin/etiology of medicine:
Latin word medicina

Describe the linguistic origin/etiology of drug:
Dutch word droog, which means dry and refer to the use of dried herbs and plants as the first medicines

How are the definitions of drug and medicine the same? How are they different?
They can be used interchangeably, but drug can refer specifically to chemical substances such as illicit drugs.

What are the three medical uses for drugs?
Therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive use.

Describe therapeutic use and give an example:
Drugs are used to control, improve, or cure symptoms, conditions, or diseases of a physical or psychological nature (Example: antibiotic drugs used to treat an infection).

Describe diagnostic use and give an example:
Drugs are used by themselves or in conjunction with radiological procedures and other types of medical tests to provide evidence of a disease
process (Example: a contrast dye used during an x-ray)

Describe preventive use and give an example:
Drugs are used to prevent the occurrence of symptoms, conditions, or diseases (Example: vaccination)

Give the meaning of and describe the linguistic origin of the symbol Rx:
Derived from the Latin word recipe, which means to take. It designates a prescription for drugs.

What drug in current use originated from the foxglove plant?
digoxin (Lanoxin), which is used to treat congestive heart failure.

What drug in current use originated from sheeps’ wool?
lanolin, which is a topical skin drug.

What drug in current use originated from the rose hips?
Vitamin C

What drug in current use originated from the opium poppy?
Morphine, which is analgesic drug used to treat severe pain.

What drug in current use originated from mold?
Penicillin, which is an antibiotic drug.

What drug in current use originated from periwinkle (vinca)?
Vincristine, which is used to treat cancer.

In which decade was insulin first introduced?
1920s, treatment for diabetes

In which decade was penicillin first introduced?
1940s, first antibiotic drug

In which decade was aspirin first introduced?
1890s

In which decade was cortisone first introduced?
1940s, first corticosteroid drug

In which decade was vitamin A first introduced?
1910s

In which decade was phenobarbital first introduced?
1910s, first antiepileptic drug for epilepsy

In which decade was viagra first introduced?
1990s, first oral drug for erectile dysfunction in men

In which decade was Tagamet first introduced?
1970s, first h2 blocker drug for peptic ulcers

In which decade was Librium first introduced?
1950s, first antianxiety drug for neurosis

In which decade was first recombinant DNA Drug first introduced?
1980s, Humalin (human insulin)

In which decade was Thorazine first introduced?
1950s, first antipsychotic drug for psychosis

In which decade was Gardisil first introduced?
2000s, first vaccine against cervical cancer caused by HPV

In which decade was Inderal first introduced?
1960s, first beta-blocker drug for hypertension

In which decade was the first H2 blocker drug first introduced?
1970s, Tagamet for peptic ulcers

In which decade was Nicoderm first introduced?
1990s, OTC drug for stopping smoking

In which decade was first drug for HIV first introduced?
1980s

In which decade was Botox first introduced?
2000s, for the treatment of facial wrinkles

Name three ancient medicines that seem silly or outrageous to us today?
Frog’s bile, sour milk and pig’s teeth

Is it possible that some of the medicines that seemed silly in ancient times, could be found to have some therapeutic effect value in the future?
Yes, moldy bread was used as an ancient remedy and found many centuries later to contain the drug penicillin.

In the 1700s and 1800s, drugs frequently contained addictive ingredients not listed on the label. Name two such ingredients
cocaine, heroin, Opium, and morphine.

Describe the social and consumer safety circumstances that led to the passage of The Food and Drugs Act of 1906.
Passed in response to the worthless, mislabeled, and dangerous drugs on the market at that time that contained addictive ingredients.

Describe the social and consumer safety circumstances that led to the passage of The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.
Passed in response to the untested Elixir of Sulfonamide that contained an industrial-strength liquid solvent that killed many people. The burden of proof was shifted to the drug company to prove their drug was safe before they could market it.

Describe the social and consumer safety circumstances that led to the passage of the Kefauver-Harris Amendment of 1962
Passed in response to babies being born in Europe with phocomelia (seal limbs), so that a drug had to be shown to be both safe and effective before being marketed.

Describe the social and consumer safety circumstances that led to the passage of the FDA Modernization Act of 1987
Passed because new drug approvals were taking too long (34 months) and certain critical drugs needed to have an accelerated review

What federal agency is empowered to review data on a drug’s safety and clinical effectiveness and approve drugs for marketing?
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

What is Compassionate Use IND application?
Another name for an Emergency Treatment Investigational New Drug application. This application, when filed with the FDA, allows a physician to prescribe an investigational drug even before it has been officially approved for marketing in the cases of life threatening diseases for which there is no alternative therapy

When an IND application is filed with the FDA, it allows the physician to:
prescribe an investigational drug even before it has been officially approved for marketing in the cases of life threatening disease for which there is no alternative therapy.

Define prescription drug:
A drug that is not safe to use except under professional medical supervision these drugs can only be obtained with a written prescription or verbal order from the physician (or other healthcare provider whose license allows this).

Describe over-the-counter (OTC) drug
A drug that can be purchased without a prescription and is generally considered safe for consumers to use if the label’s directions and warnings are followed carefully and all warnings are heeded.

Describe how The Controlled Substances Act categorized drugs of potential abuse.
Five categories or schedules according to their potential for causing physical or psychological dependence, with Schedule I drugs having the highest potential for abuse and no medical use

What is the purpose of the 1983 Orphan Drug Act?
What three incentives does it offer to drug companies to develop orphan drugs?
To facilitate the development of new drugs to treat patients who had rare diseases. It provides tax credits, simplifies the process of FDA approval, and gives the drug company exclusive marketing rights for seven years.

What part of the wording of a drug label tells you that it is a prescription drug?
The inscription “Caution: Federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription” on drug package labels tells you that it is a prescription drug. You may also see “Rx only.”

Why was the drug Thalidomide , which caused severe birth defects in thousands of babies, allowed on the market again?
It was discovered to be useful in treating cancer, AIDS, and leprosy, life threatening diseases for which there is no cure.

What is the meaning of the symbol “capital C with the roman numeral III inside”
Schedule III drug

The FDA approves a prescription drug being reclassified as an OTC drug if the following criteria are met:
(1) the indication for the drug’s OTC use is similar to its use as a prescription drug,

(2) the patient can easily diagnose and monitor his or her own condition when using the OTC drug,

(3) the OTC drug has a low rate of side effects/toxicity and a low potential for abuse, and (4) use of the OTC drug does
not require the patient to have any special monitoring or ongoing tests

Why did the FDA rule against Mevacor becoming an OTC drug?
Because the patient cannot easily monitor his/her own condition when using the OTC drug (a high level of cholesterol in the blood) and the use of the drug does require special monitoring and ongoing testing (liver function tests).

What is zolpidem (Ambien)?
Non barbiturate Drugs for Insomnia, A schedule IV drug with some potential for addiction

What is lovastatin (Mevacor)?
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Drug for Hypercholesterolemia. Also know as statin drugs

*People taking statin drugs are tested periodically for liver function abnormalities.

adverse effect drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasanr or even dangerous brand name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called trade name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

pharmacodynamics study of the mechanism of drugs pharmacokinetics study of the factors that affect the time course of drug events WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample what …

Pharmacology Study of the biological effects of chemicals Pharmacotherapeutics Branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs (clinical pharmacology) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Preclinical Drug Trials …

Pharmacognosy The study of natural drugs is called Chemical name The formula that explains the composition of the drug is known as its WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) respiratory disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency that may occur as a result of trauma, pneumonia, oxygen toxicity, gram-negative sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response. Aerosolized agents group of aerosol drugs for pulmonary applications that includes adrenergic, …

The branch of pharmacology that uses drugs to treat, prevent, and diagnose disease. Pharmacotherapeutics (Clinical Pharm.) Name given to the drug by the manufacturer. Brand Name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy