Pharmacology ati review and antidotes

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

(toxicity)

Antidote:

*acetyl-cys-teine*
(Mucomyst)

Anti-cholin-ergics

(toxicity)

Antidote:

*physo-stig-mine*
(Antilirium)m

Benzo-di-az-e-pine

(toxicity)

Antidote:

*fluma-zen-il*
(Romazicon)

Calcium Channel Blockers
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*calcium chloride*.
*calcium gluconate*

Beta Blocker
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*Iso-pro-ter-enol*
(increases HR and relaxes Bronchioles)

Cyanide
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*sodium nitrate.*
*sodium thio-sull-fate*

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*di-gox-in immune fab*
(Digibind)

Heparin
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*pro-ta-mine sulfate*

Iron

(toxicity)

Antidote:

*def-ern-x-amine*
(Desferal)

Insulin
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*glucagon*

Lead
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*suc-ci-mer*
(Chemet)

Opioid
(toxicity)
Antidote:

*naloxone* (Narcan);
*nal-fe-mene* (Revex)

Warrfarin Sodium (Coumadin)

(toxicity)

Antidote:

* phy-tona-di-one*
(Vitamin K)

Potassium toxicity
Antidote:

*sodium poly-sty-rene*
(Keyexalate)

Hypoxic Crisis
*FiO2: nonrebreather mask with oxygen reservoir at 10 to 15 L/min.*

(Criteria: Severe Physiological stress: which is Shock, trauma injury, hemodynamically unstable, or cardiac arrest)

*Brain Death occurs at 5 to 6 minutes of no oxygen.*

*Room Air* is a fraction of inspires of oxygen (FiO2) at *21%.*

BradyCardic Crisis
*Atropine Sulfate*

increases the heart rate by blocking the Vagus Nerve (parasympatholytic effect).

Crisis drug for cardiac arrest until electric shock or pacemaker therapy is available?
*Iso-pro-terenol*

(beta-adrenergic drug–temp use while awaiting pacemaker)
(relaxes bronchioles and increased HR)

Intracranial Hypertension Crisis Drug
*Man-ni-tol*

(osmostic diuretic used in ER and Trauma)
(hold w/ serum oxmoality greater than 310)

What Crisis Med given to prevent G.I. Absorption?
*Activated Charcoal*

(No milk products)

Treatment for Hypertensive Crisis
(diastolic pressure >110 mm/hg and pulmonary edema)
*Nitro-prus-side Sodium*

(atrial agent to reduce BP w/ HTN Crisis)
(titrate med: must be on IV pump)

Med for Clinical Significant Hyper Tension
*la- beta-lol*

(Alpha and Beta Blocker)
(initial dose: 10 – 20 mg SIVP)

Med used for Pulmonary Edema
*Fur-os-emide*,
(vasodilatation effects prior to diuresis)

*Morphine Sulfate*.
(produces venous dilation–> decreased PRELOAD)

-cillin.
Interpretation:

*Penicillin, antibiotic (check allergy)*

Generic Names:
Amoxicillin.
Nafcillin.
Oxacillin.
Penicillin.
Peperacillin.
Ticarcillin.

cef-.
ceph-.
Interpretation:

*Cepha-lo-sporin Antibiotic; check allergy to penicillin*.

Generic Names:
Cefazolin.
Cephalexin.
Cefotetan.
Ceftazidime
Ceftiazone.

-floxacin.
Interpretation:

*Fluoro-quin-olone, antibiotic.*

Generic Names:
Ciprofloxacin.
Levofloxacin.
Norfloxacin.
Sparfloxacin.

-micin, -mycin
Interpretation:

*Amino-gly-co-side, antibiotic**.

Generic Names:
Gentamicin.
Kanamycin.
Neomycin.
Netilmicin.
Paromomycin.
Streptomycin.
Tobramycin.

sulfa-.
Interpretation:

*Sulf-on-amide, antibiotic; check allergy to sulfa*

Generic Names:
Sulfacetamide.
Sulfadiazine.
Sulfamethaxazole.
Sulfisoxazole.

-cycline.
Interpretation:

*Tetra-cy-cline, antibiotic.*

Generic Names:
Doxycycline.
Minocycline.
Tetracycline.

-dronate.
Interpretation:

*Bi-phos-phate, bone resorption inhibitor.*

Generic Names:
Alendronate.
Etidronate.
Pamidronate.
Risedronate.

nitr-, -nitr-.
Interpretation:

*Ni-trate, vasodilator, anti-anginal.*

Generic Names:
Isosorbide dinitrate.
Mononitrate.
Nitroglycerin.

-dipine.
Interpretation:

*Calcium Channel Blocker, anti-anginal, antihypertensive.*

Generic Names:
Amlodipine.
Felodipine.
Isradipine.
Nicardipine.
Nifedipine.
Nisoldipine.

-olol, -lol.
Interpretation:

*Beta adrenergic blocker,
antihypertensive, and/or antianginal*.

Generic Names:
Atenolol.
Betaxolol.
Bisoprolol.
Metoprolol.
Nadolol.
Propranolol.
Timolol.

-pril.
Interpretation:

*ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) inhibitor, antihypertensive.*

Generic Names:
Benzapril.
Captopril.
Enalapril.
Fosinopril.
Lisinopril.
Moexepril.
Perindopril.
Quinapril.
Ramipril.
Trandolapril.

-zosin.
Interpratation:

*alpha-1 blocker (peripherally acting), antihypertensive.*

Generic Names:
Doxazicin.
Prazosin.
Terazosin.

-sartan.
Interpretation:

*(ARB) Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, antihypertensive*.

Generic Names:
Candesartan.
Eprosartan.
Irbesartan.
Losartan.
Olmesartan.
Telmisartan.
Valsartan.

-ase.
-plase
Interpretation:

*Thrombolytic Agent
(-ase usually indicates enzyme).*

Generic Names:
Ateplase.
Anistreplase.
Reteplase.
Streptokinase.
Tenecteplase.

-parin.
Interpretation:

*Anticoagulant, heperin or heparinoid.*

Generic Names:
Ardearin.
Dalterparin.
Enoxaparin.
Heparin.
Tinzaparin.

-prazole.
Interpretation:

*GI proton pump inhibitor, antiulcer.*

Generic Names:
Lansoprazole.
Omeprazole.
Pantoprazole.
Raberprazole.

-tidine.
Interpretation:

*Histamine H2 antagonist (GI), antiulcer.*

Generic Names:
Cimetidine.
Famotidine.
Nizatidine.
Ranitidine.

sal-, -sal-.
Interpretation:

*Contains salicylate; check allergy to salicylates or aspirin.*

Generic Names:
Salsalate (nonopioid analgesic).
Sulfasalazine (GI anti-inflammatory).

-sone, -lone, pred-.
Interpretation:

*Corticosteroid.*

Generic Names:
Betamethasone.
Cortisone.
Dexamethasone.
Prednisolone.
Prednisone.
Triamcinolone.

-statin.
Interpretation:

*HMG-COenzyme A reducatse inhibitor, lipid lowering agent.*

Generic Names:
Atorvastatin.
Fluvastatin.
Lovastatin.
Pravastatin.
Rosuvastatin.
Simvastatin.

-phylline.
Interpretation:

*Xan-thine type of bronchodilator.*

Generic Names:
Aminophylline.
Theophylline.

-terol.
Interpretation:

*Adrenergic type of bronchoilator.*

Generic Names:
Albuterol.
Bitolterol.
Formoterol.
Levabuterol.
Metaproterenol.
Pirbuterol.
Salmeterol.

-azole.
Interpretation:

Antifungal Anti-microbial.

Generic Names:
Clotrimazole.
Edorazole.
Fluconazole.
Ketoconazole.
Miconazole.
Variconazole.

-vir.
Interpretation:

*Antiviral antiinfective.*

Generic Names:
Acyclovir.
Cidofovir.
Famciclovir.
Gangciclovir.
Valacyclovir.

-triptan.
Interpretation:

*Vascular headache suppressant*

Generic Names:
Almotriptan.
Naratriptan.
Sumatriptan.
Zolmitriptan.

-zepam, -zolam.
Interpretation:

*Benzodiazepine, antianxiety, sedative/hypnotic.*

Generic Names:
Diazepam.
Lorazepam.
Oxazepam.
Alprazolam.
Midazolam.

Antidote to warfarin or Coumadin Phytomenadione or vitamin K, though transfusion may be necessary if bleeding ins severe due to the delayed onset of vitamin K Antidote to enoxaparin or Lovenox Protamine sulfate, dosing should be equal to the dose …

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