Pharmacology ATI Ch.10

Schizophrenia is the primary reason for the administration of antipsychotic medications.

Schizophrenia symptoms
(+) symptoms- agitation, delusions, hallucinations, tangential speech patterns

(-) symptoms – social withdrawal, lack of emotion, lack of energy, flattened affect, decreased motivation, decreased pleasure in activities

Goals of psychopharmacological treatment for schizophrenia:
suppressing acute episodes
Preventing acute recurrence
Maintaining the highest possible level of functioning
Atypical antipsychotic agents are the medications of choice for clients

Advantages of anti-psychoitc agents
Relief of both positive and negative symptoms
Decrease in affective symptoms and suicidal behaviors
Improvement of neurocognitive defects, such as poor memory
Fewer of no EPS, including tar dive dyskinesia
Less relapse

conventional Antipsychotics
haloperidol (Haldol)
Fluphenazine (Prolixin)
Thiothixene (Navane)

bipolar manic phase
treatment of acute and chronic psychosis

SE of conventional antipsychotics
acute dystonia: client experiences ever spasms of tongue, neck, face, or back.

Parkinsonism: S&S include bradykinesia, rigidity, shuffling gait, drooling, & tremors

Akathisia: client unable to stand still or sit and is continually pacing and agitated.

Late EPS, tartive dyskinesia
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: fever, BP fluctuations, muscle rigidity, and changes in LOC

anticholinergic effects: dry mouth, blurred vision, photophobia, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia

Orthostatic hypotension

Atypical Antipsychotics
risperidone (Risperdal)
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
Quetiapine (Seroquel)
Aripiprazole (Abilify)
Ziprasidone (Geodon)
Clozapine (Clozaril)

Expected action: blocks receptors for norepinephrine, histamine, and acetylcholine

Therapeutic Uses:
Relief of psychotic symptoms

SE of Antipsychotics
Diabetes mellitus
weight gain
orthostatic hypotension
anticholinergic effects
agitation, dizziness, sedation, and sleep disruption

Drug Class including: Diazepam Alprazolam Lorazepam Chlordiazepoxide Clorazepate Oxazepam Clonazepam Benzodiazepine Diazepam brand name Valium WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Aplrazolam Xanax Chlordiazepoxide Librium Clorazepate Tranxene …

What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia? Symptoms related to behavior, thought, and speech, such as agitation, delusions, hallucinations, tangential speech patterns. What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia? Social withdrawal, lack of emotion, lack of energy, flattened affect, decreased …

Depressive symptoms sleeping too much or too little, no energy, abnormal eating, physical symptoms, feelings of despair, misery, obsessed with death, avoiding interpersonal interactions Reactive Depression sudden onset resulting from a previous event; example: death of a loved one WE …

A-methyl-dopa Use: HTN, Opioid Withdrawal. Mechanism: A2 agonist, decreases sympathetic outflow, inhibits NE release, rebound HT. SE: dry mouth, sedation. Note: A-methyl-dopa is metabolized to A-methyl-NE (A2 agonist) Cocaine Inhibits neuronal uptake, can cross into CNS. I: amphetamines, CA Always …

Drug classification – conventional antipsychotic Dose range fluphenazine hydrochloride: – PO: 0.5-10 mg/day in divided doses q6-8 hr maximum dose: 40 mg/day – IM: 1.25-2.5 mg q6-8 hr fluphenazine decanoate: Depot injection – 12.5-25 mg initially, may be repeated q3 …

TI high TI: wide safety monitoring. No need for serum monitoring. low TI: have medication levels monitoring. ie trough levels: blood drawn immediately before the next dose agonist mimics receptor activity (ie morphine) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

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