Pharmacology 101: Basic terms

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Drug
Chemicals that affects physiologic processes of living organism.

Pharmacology
Study or science of drugs.

Drug chemical name
Describes the drug’s chemical composition and molecular structure.

Generic name
Name given by the US Adopted Name Council (always lowercase)

Trade name
The drug has registered trademark; use of name restricted by the drugs patent owner (usually manufacturer) (always capital)

Pharmaceutics
The study of how various drug forms influence pharmcokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities. Dsg fork design affects dissolution.

Pharmcokinetic
The study of what the body does to the drug. (Absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion)

Pharmacodynamics
The study of what the drug does to our body (mechanism of drug actions in living tissues)

Pharmacotherapeutics
The use of drugs and clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases.

What is the absorption as it pertains to drugs?
The rate at which a drug leaves it’s site of administration, and extent to which absorption occurs.

What are some factors that affect absorptions of drugs? Food or fluids administered with the drug.
Dosage formulation.
Status of absorption surface.
Rate of blood flow to small intestine.
Acidity of stomach.
Status of GI motility.

What are the routes in which drug can enter the body?
Enteral, parenteral, and topical.

Enteral route
The drug is absorbed into systemic circulation through oral or gastric mucosa or small intestine.

What are the enteral routes for drugs?
Oral.
Sublingual.
Buccal.
Rectal (topical)

First pass effect
Metabolism of a drug and its passage from liver into circulation.

What are the parenteral routes for drugs?
Intravenous (fastest)
Intramuscular
Subcutaneous
Intradermal
Intraarterial
Intrathecal
Intraarticular
Transdermal (nicotine patch)

What are the topical routes for drugs?
Skin
Eyes
Ears
Nose
Lungs
Rectum
Vagina

Distribution
Transport of a drug in the body by bloodstream to its site of action.

How are the drugs distributed through body?
Protein-binding
Water soluble vs. fat soluble
Blood-brain barrier
Areas of rapid distribution: *heart, liver, kidneys, brain*
Areas of slow distribution: *muscle, skin, fat*

Metabolism
Biochemical transformation of a drug.

What body parts are responsible for metabolism of drugs?
Liver (main organ)
Skeletal muscle
Kidneys
Lungs
Plasma
Intestinal mucosa

What are some factors that decrease metabolism/biotransformation?
Cardiovascular dysfunction
Renal insufficiency
Starvation
Obstructive jaundice
Erythromycin or ketoconazole drug therapy

What are factors that increase metabolism/biotransformation?
Barbiturate therapy.
Rifampin therapy.

What does delaying drug metabolism cause?
Accumulation of drugs.
Prolonged action of drugs-> drug toxicity.

What does stimulating drug metabolism cause?
Diminished pharmacologic effect.

Excretion
Elimination of drugs from body.

What part of the body can excrete drugs?
Kidneys (main organ)
Liver
Bowel

Half-life
The time it takes for one half of the original amount of a drug to be removed from the body.

When are drugs confiscated to be effectively removed from the body?
After about five half lives.

Steady state
Physiologic state in which amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to be amount of drug absorbed with each dose.

What are drugs actions?
Cellular processes involved in the drug and cell interaction.

What are drug effect?
Physiological reaction of the body to the drug.

Onset
Time it takes for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response.

Peak
Time it takes for a drug to reach maximum therapeutic response.

Duration
Time a drug concentration is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response.

What does peak level of drugs monitor?
Highest of blood level of the drug in the body.

What does the trough level of drugs monitor?
Lowest blood level of the drug in the body.

What are ways drugs produce therapeutic effects?
They can increase or decrease the rate at which the cells or tissues function.

What are mechanisms of action for drugs?
Drugs can act on receptor interaction, enzyme interactions and nonselective interactions.

Name some types of drug therapies?
Acute, maintenance, supplemental, replacement, palliative, supportive, prophylactic.

Define contraindications.
Any characteristics of patient, especially a disease state, that makes the use of a given medication dangerous for patient.

What are drugs interactions?
The alterations of a drug’s action by other prescribed drugs, OTCs, and herbal therapies.

What are adverse drug events?
Any undesirable occurrence involving drugs.

What is medication error?
Preventable situation in which there’s a compromise in the 5 rights.

What is an adverse drug reaction?
Any reaction to a drug that’s unexpected, undesirable.

What are synergetic effects?
When 2 drugs administered together interact and their combined effects are greater than the sum of effects for each drug given alone.

What are antagonistic effects?
Drug effects that are almost opposite of synergistic effects. When one drug opposes the action of another. (Insulin and glucagon)

What is hypersensitivity?
Adverse immune reaction that results from previous exposure to particular chemical or one that’s structurally similar. Divided into categories: Types 1-4. (Rash is most common, nausea and vomiting aren’t symptoms range from rash to antiphylactic shock)

Additive effects
When 2 drugs with similar actions are given together.

What are some considerations for administering drugs to the elderly >65?
Their use of OTC, increase incidence of chronic illness, sensory and motor deficits, polpharmacy, physiology changes (cardiovascular, GI, hepatic, and renal)

Why should pregnant woman be careful when taking drugs?
1st trimester had the greatest devt of defects, meds cross placenta by diffusion. Category A, B, C, D, and E.

What’s the FDA responsible for when it comes to meds?
For approving drugs for clinical safety and efficacy before they’re brought to market.

Mutagenic
Capable of inducing mutation (used mainly of extracellular factors such as X-rays or chemical pollution)

Carcinogenic
Causing or tending to cause cancer. (Cigarettes)

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Absorption Process by which a drug enters the circulatory system (blood). Intravenous (IV) & Intra-Arterial Administration/Dosage routs that do …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy abuse Misuse; excessive or improper use, especially of narcotics and psychoactive drugs. absorption The process whereby the drug passes …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacology study of drugs and interaction with living system. Pharmakon greek word of drug or poison WE WILL WRITE …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacology The study of the biological effects of chemicals in clinical practice. Side Effect Expected but unintended effect of …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy pharmacodynamics the study of drugs and their actions on living organisms. It involves the biochemical & physiological effects of …

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