Pharm – General Principles of Pharmacology

What are the four (4) types of names assigned to drugs?
1) Chemical name
2) Generic name
3) Official name
4) Trade name (brand name)

What are the three (3) key features of a drug’s chemical name?
1) Exact chemical makeup of the drug
2) Placement of the atoms or molecular structure
3) No capitalization

What are the four (4) key features of a drug’s generic name?
1) Non-proprietary
2) Name given to drug before it becomes official
3) May be used in all countries by all manufacturers
4) No capitalization

What are the two (2) key features of a drug’s official name?
1) Name listed in “The United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary”
2) May not be the same as the generic name

What are the four (4) key features of a drug’s trade name (brand name)?
1) Name is registered by the manufacturer and is followed by the trademark symbol
2) Can be used only by the manufacturer
3) Any given drug may have several trade names
4) First letter of the name is capitalized

What is the largest category of drugs?
Prescription

Prescription drugs require a prescription by a ________.
Licensed health care provider

Prescription drugs are also called ________ drugs.
Legend

Prescriptions must have 1) the ________ of the drug, 2) the ________ of the drug, 3) the ________ of administration, 4) the ________ of administration, and 5) the ________.
1) name
2) dose
3) number of times
4) route
5) amount to be dispensed

Non-prescription drugs may be obtained without a ________.
Prescription

What is another name for non-prescription drugs?
OTC (over the counter)

Name two general conditions under which risks may be associated with non-prescription drugs.
1) When directions are not followed
2) When adverse reactions occur

What is a controlled substance?
A controlled substance is a drug or chemical whose use, ownership, or manufacture is regulated by law — particularly the federal Controlled Substances Act.

Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified into ________ distinct categories or schedules.
Five

Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified into distinct categories or schedules depending upon 1) ________ and 2) ________.
1) the drug’s acceptable medical use
2) the drug’s abuse or dependency potential

The schedule numbering for controlled substances ranges from ________ to ________.
I to V

A schedule V drug has a [higher or lower] potential for abuse or dependency than a schedule I drug.
Lower

What are the two key features of a schedule I drug?
1) High abuse potential
2) No accepted medical use in the U.S.

What are the two examples of a schedule I substance listed in the PowerPoint presentation?
1) Heroin
2) LSD

Schedule II substances are characterized by potential for abuse with ________ physical or psychological ________.
Severe
Dependence

Schedule III substances have [more or less] abuse potential than schedule II substances.
Less

Schedule III substances are characterized by ________ physical or psychological dependence.
Moderate

Non-barbiturate sedatives, non-amphetamine stimulants, and limited amounts of certain narcotics are examples of schedule ________ drugs
III

Schedule III substances have [more or less] abuse potential than schedule IV substances.
More

Schedule IV substances are characterized by ________ dependence.
Limited

What are the two (2) general categories the PowerPoint presentation gives as examples of schedule IV substances?
1) Sedatives and anxiety agents
2) Non-narcotic analgesics

Schedule ________ substances are characterized by limited abuse potential.
V

Anti-________ and anti-________ medications are categorized as schedule V substances because they contain small amounts of ________.
(Anti)-tussives
(Anti)-diarrheals
Narcotics

Drugs taken by mouth (except liquids) go through how many phases?
Three

Drugs taken by ________ (except liquids) go through three (3) phases.
Mouth

The three (3) phases of drugs taken my mouth (except liquids) are:
1) Pharmaceutic phase
2) Pharmacokinetic phase
3) Pharmacodynamic phase

The ________ phase involves the dissolution of the drug.
Pharmaceutic

Drugs must be in ________ to be absorbed.
Solution

Liquid drugs and ________ drugs do not go through the pharmaceutic phase because they are already in solution.
Parenteral

________ administration involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines (i.e., the gastrointestinal tract).
Enteral

Oral, sublingual (dissolving the drug under the tongue), and rectal are ________ methods of administration.
Enteral

________ administration literally means to avoid the gut (gastrointestinal tract) and refers to any route of administration outside of or beside the alimentary tract.
Parenteral

________ tablets do not dissolve until reaching the small intestine.
Enteric-coated

Metabolic activities of the drug within the body after it is administered relate to the ________ phase.
Pharmacokinetic

The pharmacokinetic phase relates to how many different features or actions of the drug?
Six (6)

The six drug features or actions that figure into pharmacokinetics are:
1) Bioavailability
2) Absorption
3) Distribution
4) Metabolism
5) Excretion
6) Drug half-life

Mnemonic: BAD MED

Absorption is the process by which a drug ________.
Becomes available for use in the body

In ________ absorption, a carrier molecule moves the drug across a membrane.
Active

Passive absorption occurs when the drug moves from an area of ________ concentration to ________ concentration. This transport mechanism is known as ________.
Higher
Lower
Diffusion

________ is a method of absorption in which cells engulf the drug particle, causing movement across the cell.
Pinocytosis

________, ________, and ________ affect the rate of absorption.
Route of administration
Solubility of the drug
Certain body conditions

What are the two (2) PowerPoint examples of body conditions that affect the rate of absorption?
1) Lipodystrophy
2) Food in the stomach

Whether a drug is ________ soluble or ________ soluble can affect its rate of absorption.
Water
Lipid

IV, IM, SC, and PO are examples of ________, which affects the rate of absorption.
Route of administration

________ is the fraction of the drug that reaches systemic circulation chemically unchanged.
Bioavailability

Protein binding refers to the fact that drugs travel in the system circulation bound to ________ and are ________ when bound to protein.
Albumin
Inactive

Protein molecules release the drug, which diffuses through the tissue, interacts with receptors, and produces the desired ________.
Therapeutic effect

________ drug levels must be maintained in order for the drug to be effective.
Therapeutic

If the drug level [increases or decreases], the drug will not produce the desired effect.
Decreases

If the drug level increases, ________ symptoms may occur.
Toxic

________ is the chemical reaction that occurs in the liver and converts a drug to an inactive compound.
Biotransformation

The ________ effect applies to drugs that are absorbed in the small intestines and are transported to the liver via portal circulation. There they are metabolized by the liver before release into the circulatory system.
First-pass

The first-pass effect applies to drugs that are absorbed in the ________ and are transported to the liver via portal circulation. There they are metabolized by the liver before release into the circulatory system.
Small intestines

The first-pass effect applies to drugs that are absorbed in the small intestines and transported to the ________ via portal circulation. There they are metabolized by the ________ before release into the circulatory system.
Liver
Liver

The first-pass effect can ________ the bioavailability of a drug.
Decrease

The first-pass effect can decrease the ________ of a drug.
Bioavailability

Only ________ drugs undergo the first-pass effect.
PO

________ refers to elimination of a drug from the body.
Clearance

In the process of excretion, the ________ renders the drug inactive and the ________ excretes the inactive compounds.
Liver
Kidney

Some drugs are excreted by the kidney unchanged and without ________ involvement.
Liver

What are the six (6) PowerPoint examples of routes of excretion?
1) Kidney
2) Sweat
3) Breast milk
4) Respiratory
5) Feces
6) Bile

The ________ phase refers to drug actions and effects on the body.
Pharmacodynamic

As part of a drug’s pharmacodynamics, primary and secondary effects may alter the cellular ________ or the cellular ________.
Environment
Function

Alteration in ________ function can increase or decrease physiologic function.
Cellular

Physical changes in the cellular environment include what three (3) alterations listed in the PowerPoint?
1) Osmotic pressure
2) Lubrication
3) Absorption

________ refers to the intended effect of the drug on the body.
Therapeutic response

________ are drugs that bind with a receptor to produce results.
Agonists

Drugs that bind with a receptor and prevent another molecule from binding to the same receptor and producing some result are called ________
Antagonists

What are the six (6) main categories of drug reactions?
1) Toxic reactions
2) Drug tolerance
3) Drug idiosyncrasy
4) Allergic drug reactions
5) Adverse drug reactions
6) Cumulative drug effect

Mnemonic: Tall Talking Idiots Alert Comatose Advisors
Tolerance, Toxic, Idiosyncrasy, Allergic, Cumulative, Adverse

Adverse reactions are often called ________ when they are mild.
Side effects

________ reactions are often called side effects when they are mild.
Adverse

Allergic reactions can be called ________ reactions.
Hypersensitivity

________ can be called hypersensitivity reactions.
Allergic reactions

________ may prompt the body to produce antibodies against what it perceives as an antigen.
Allergic reactions

Allergic reactions may prompt the body to produce ________ against what it perceives as an ________.
Antibodies
Antigen

________ is an extremely serious allergic reaction and can be life-threatening if not recognized and treated immediately.
Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock is an extremely serious ________ and can be life-threatening if not recognized and treated immediately.
Allergic reaction

________ refers to any abnormal or unusual drug reaction of unknown cause and with no predictability.
Drug idiosyncrasy

________ refers to decreased response to a drug requiring increase in dosage.
Tolerance

[Increased or decreased] response to drug requiring [increase or decrease] in dosage is referred to as tolerance, which is a sign of ________.
Decreased
Increase
Drug dependence

________ refers to increased response to a drug because of decreased metabolism and excretion (usually secondary to ________ or ________ disease).
Cumulative effect
Liver
Kidney

Cumulative effect refers to [increased or decreased] response to a drug because of [increased or decreased] metabolism and excretion (usually secondary to liver or kidney disease).
Increased
Decreased

________ refers to poisoning of the system secondary to overdose of chemical resulting in elevated blood concentration.
Toxic reaction

Toxic reaction refers to poisoning of the system secondary to ________ of chemical resulting in ________ blood concentration.
Overdose
Elevated

________ refers to a genetically caused abnormal response to a drug.
Pharmacogenetic reaction

What are the two (2) main types of drug interactions from the PowerPoint?
1) Drug-drug
2) Drug-food

What are the three (3) basic types of drug-drug reactions?
1) Additive drug reaction
2) Synergistic drug reaction
3) Antagonistic drug reaction

________ is the term used when two or more drugs are taken at the same time and the action of one plus the action of the other results in an action as if just one drug had been given. This could be represented by 1+1= 2. An example would be a barbiturate and a tranquilizer given together before surgery to relax the patient.
Additive drug reaction

________ occurs when two drugs are taken together that are similar in action, such as barbiturates and alcohol, which are both depressants, resulting in an effect that is exaggerated out of proportion to that of each drug taken separately at the given dose. This could be expressed by 1+1= 5. An example might be a person taking a dose of alcohol and a dose of a barbiturate. Normally, taken alone, neither substance would cause serious harm in this example, but if taken together, the combination could cause coma or death.
Synergistic drug reaction

________ occurs when two drugs given together have an opposite effect on the body. This could be expressed by 1+1=0. An example might be the use of a tranquilizer to stop the action of LSD. Some stimulants will counteract the effects of depressants and thus are used to treat overdoses of barbiturates and narcotics.
Antagonistic drug reaction

What are the five (5) chief factors influencing drug response?
1) Age
2) Weight
3) Gender
4) Disease
5) Route of administration

________ refers to taking of multiple drugs and creates potential for ________
Polypharmacy
Interactions

Polypharmacy is often practiced by ________, who have more conditions for which to be medicated.
the elderly

Polypharmacy increases the possibility of ________ reactions.
Adverse

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