The purpose of this programme is to decide on my current fitness level and to improve my relative sport, which is netball. To start of my programme I am going to explain what fitness is then I am going to analyse my level of fitness in order to decide how fit I am. Finally I am going to decide on what fitness targets I think are relevant to achieve by the end of this. What is physical fitness? Physical fitness is a set of qualities that are either health related or performance (or skill) related. Health related fitness comprises those components of fitness that show a relationship with health status. Performance/skill related fitness involves those components of fitness that enable best work or sport performance.
General Fitness is- is the ability to carry out every day activities where you’re hardly tired when performing them with enough energy left for emergencies. For example, walking a dog, walking up stairs, or carrying the shopping bags etc. Specific Fitness is- fitness is where you are physically fit enough to perform your sports with out becoming tired. In order to perform well at your sport you need to have everything planned in your head. For example you may have set play with other players in your team in order to win and make it difficult for the opposition. You may also individually have a visual vision of shooting or what you are going to do if a player on the opposite team is making it difficult for you to get close to the goal.
There are 11 components of fitness, five of which are health related fitness and the other six of these components are skill related.There are many different methods that can be used in order to train. The different methods adapt to regular exercise and include methods such as; continuous training, fartlek training, interval training, circuit training, weight training, plyometric training and flexibility training. I am now going to go on and explain each training method in more detail.
Continuous training Continuous training consists of two different training types the first is; long, slow distant training. This type of training is anything, which involves whole body activity such as, running, swimming, cycling, rowing or taking part in aerobics. This type of training has to be carried out over a long period of time, for example 30 minutes to 2 hours, throughout this, you have to be working at the same pace. During the maximum heart rate will need to be working at 60-80%. The reason people choose to use this form of training is to, help improve aerobic capacity/stamina. It is also a very good way which helps improves health related fitness, and also reduces the amount of body fat. Continuous training can be used to maintain fitness throughout the off-season.
High intensity continuous training also uses whole-body activity, but this training technique does not involve working for a long time, this involves working for only a short period of time. This includes working extremely hard with a maximum heart rate of 80-95%, this pace is close to you maximum possible working rate. The purpose of using this method of training is to improve the state of anaerobic ability. It improves leg speed, muscular endurance and leg strength. This way of training helps prepare for competition during tip season. This training type relates to my sport because it helps increase the level of aerobic capacity, which is essential for my sport in order to have energy throughout the whole match.
Fartlek training The word fartlek means speed play, as it includes many changes of speed. You can use different types of travel in order to maximise this training, walking, running, cycling or skiing, these can all be obtained at different speeds and intensities, functioning for a maximum of 30 minutes. The hill relief of the land needs to be varied over the land you travel. Fartlek training is used to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness, depending on the type of training.
Aerobic exercise is exercise that is of moderate intensity, continued for a long duration. Aerobic means “with oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen in a muscle’s energy-generating process. Many types of exercise are aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time. This helps game players who need both types of fitness to carry out their sport. To benefit from moving quickly, within your own capability. This training method relays to my sport because in netball you need to be very agile and need to change speed quickly but also be able to maintain as much energy as possible throughout the match.
Interval Training Interval training involves any training using alternating periods of very hard exercise followed by rest; the resting periods are essential for recovery. These periods enable us to be able to continue the training for a longer amount of time. In order to make the training types vary you can change… The intensity that is put into each period of exercise The time or distance of each exercise To increase or decrease the length of rest time in between each period of exercise. The type of activity we take part in during in period of rest, eg. Walking, sitting, fast walking etc. The number of exercise and recovery periods in training sessions
An example of an interval training session, which takes place on a track, could include, eight 200metre runs in 30 seconds with 1 minutes rest between each. Interval training is used to improve fitness, depending on how intense the exercise is. Aerobic fitness would be improved if the training session maximises the heart rate to 60-80%. Or our anaerobic fitness would improve if training were obtained for a short period of time at 80-90% maximum heart rate. If this high-quality speed is used, rests will be needed every 2-3minutes but it will then develop the ability to work when the participant gets tired. I don’t think this method of training is specifically related to my sport because hard exercise and long rests aren’t needed.
Circuit Training Circuit training means to perform a cycle of activities or exercises in a specific order, known as a circuit. Normal circuits usual consist of 6-10 exercises or activities, which take place at stations; the amount of stations can vary depending on how intense you want the circuit to be and how many muscle groups the participant wants to work. Opposing muscle groups have to be worked at each station, for example; squat thrusts followed be arm curls. As the fitness of a person improves, the circuit can be made more difficult by increasing: The number of stations, the time that is spent at each station, the number of repetitions at each station, the number of complete circuits another of changing the intensity of the circuit is to increase the amount of time you spend at each station.
Circuits should be designed to avoid working the equivalent muscle groups at stations that follow another. The reason circuit training is used, is to advance aerobic of anaerobic fitness by designing a special circuit, with this in mind. By achieving a high level of fitness, complete high numbers of repetitions. A wide variety of exercise can be included in a circuit; this makes it extremely adaptable for the needs of different sports. To improve sporting performance, designing circuit’s specific exercises to carry out, to achieve certain skills. Constructing a skills circuit for games players can be made; exercises are replaced by short skills practices. This relates to my sport because it can be used in order to increase level of fitness or to increase skill level.